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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cance(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
In Weight Loss Perspective
Weight loss(733)(734) for obese patients is one of most vital factor to reduce PCOs symptoms(735)(737) and risk of PCOs complications(736)(737). Some researchers found that 5-10% of weight low will improve PCOs features(737) by 25%, including pregnancy(738). How can you lose weight and maintain healthy body for a healthy conception?
The macro nutrients
Carbohydrate is simple sugar and complex sugar found abundantly in food, such as fruits, veggies, breads, cereals, and other grains.....with major function in production of energy for nourish cells, tissues and organs, through converting to blood sugar by digestive system(739).
a) Simple sugar
It contains food with no more than 2 simple sugar connected together. It can be release quickly into your bloodstream(740)(741).
b) Complex sugar
It contains food with long chain of simple sugar connected together, because most of them contain high amount of fiber. Foods will be digested slowly and sugars are released slowly into your bloodstream(740)(741).
Protein is important in building our body tissues. Its function is to carry out most of the reactions involved in metabolism and DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription(742), therefore, it is important element in preparing for the growth of the bady once you are pregnant(743). Dr. Kramer MS1 and Kakuma R. at the McGill University said "Balanced energy/protein supplementation improves fetal growth and may reduce the risk of fetal and neonatal death. High-protein or balanced protein supplementation alone is not beneficial and may be harmful to the infant. Protein/energy restriction of pregnant women who are overweight or exhibit high weight gain is unlikely to be beneficial and may be harmful to the infant"(744).
Fat is essential for digestive system in absorbing several types of vitamins, maintaining healthy skin, hair, body temperature and healthy cells growth(746), stored as energy through its component of glycerol and expression and activity of the lipases of adipose tissue(745). Not all fats are bad(747)(748), by choosing more good fat and limited intake of the bad one, you are ensure yourself for a healthy pregnancy. Fats include saturated fat, transfat, monosaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat(749).
The Glycemic index?
Glycemic index is a guide or table which rates all carbohydrates according to how fast they release glucose into the blood stream. The fastest release one has a high GI index. Preferences for only taking foods with low GI index, if you want to lose weight(751)(750), but following low-GI dietary prescription is difficult(750)
Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(733) [Treatment of PCOS without IVF: weight loss, insulin-sensitizing agents].[Article in French] by Pugeat M1.(PubMed)
(734) A 12-week treatment with the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide leads to significant weight loss in a subset of obese women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome by Jensterle M1, Kravos NA1, Pfeifer M1, Kocjan T1, Janez A1.(PubMed)
(735) Body mass index and gonadotropin hormones (LH & FSH) associate with clinical symptoms among women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Esmaeilzadeh S, Andarieh MG1, Ghadimi R, Delavar MA.(PubMed)
(736) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(737)
(737) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(738) A retrospective study of the pregnancy, delivery and neonatal outcome in overweight versus normal weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome by De Frène V1, Vansteelandt S2, T'Sjoen G3, Gerris J4, Somers S4, Vercruysse L4, De Sutter P4.(PubMed)
(740) Effect of simple and complex carbohydrates on plasma non-esterified fatty acids, plasma-sugar, and plasma-insulin during oral carbohydrate tolerance tests by Swan DC, Davidson P, Albrink MJ.(PubMed)
(741) Carbohydrates and health: Not that simple...or that complex. Taking control of your blood sugar and insulin levels may pay off for your heart and overall health by [No authors listed](PubMed)
(742) Protein–DNA interaction(Wikepedia)
(743) Protein in your pregnancy diet(Babycenter)
(744) Energy and protein intake in pregnancy by Kramer MS1, Kakuma R.(PubMed)
(745) Decreased lipases and fatty acid and glycerol transporter could explain reduced fat in diabetic morbidly obese by Ferrer R1, Pardina E, Rossell J, Baena-Fustegueras JA, Lecube A, Balibrea JM, Caubet E, González O, Vilallonga R, Fort JM, Peinado-Onsurbe J.(PubMed)
(747) All fats are not bad: a smart lesson to be learned by Ablin RJ, Jiang WG.(PubMed)
(748) Bad fats, good fats: new insights into diet and health.[No authors listed](PubMed)
(749) Dietary fats in your pregnancy diet(BabyCenter)
(750) Potatoes, glycemic index, and weight loss in free-living individuals: practical implications by Randolph JM1, Edirisinghe I, Masoni AM, Kappagoda T, Burton-Freeman B.(PubMed)
(751) No difference in body weight decrease between a low-glycemic-index and a high-glycemic-index diet but reduced LDL cholesterol after 10-wk ad libitum intake of the low-glycemic-index diet by Sloth B1, Krog-Mikkelsen I, Flint A, Tetens I, Björck I, Vinoy S, Elmståhl H, Astrup A, Lang V, Raben A.(PubMed)