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Thursday, 9 April 2015

The Holistic prevention, management and treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Antioxidants Bilirubin and Carotenoids

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By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                         Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cance(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to  continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).



                        The prevention and management 

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment  may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.

Although PCOS cannot be completely avoided, strengthening immunity has shown a significant reduction of chronic inflammatory diseases(266)(267)(268).


                     The Antioxidants
1. Bilirubin
Bilirubin is a prosthetic group helped to break down molecules into smaller units in releasing energy, excreted in bile and urine. It is a cellular antioxidant(511), by reverting to biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, once again when oxidized, it  inhibits the effects of mutagens(512). The antioxidant showed to inhibit digestive proteases like trypsin and chymotrypsin(504), benefit heart health(505) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(507), reduce risk of diabetes(506). Recent studies also found that the antioxidant exhibits its anti inflammatory effects(511) against certain chronic inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis(508), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(509), .... and enhances immunity activities(510)

2. Carotenoids
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts(513) of plants and some photosynthetic organisms like algae and bacteria(514).
a. Beta-carotene
Beta-carotene, an organic compound classified as a terpenoid, is a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits, stored in liver for the production of vitamin A. Epidemiological evidences sugested that beta-carotene neutralizes singlet oxygen before giving rise of free radicals(515) which can damage of DNA, leading to improper cell DNA replication(516)(517), causing irregual cells growth, such as cancers(518)(519)(520). The phytochemical also promotes immunity(521)(522) against foreign invasion and symptoms of chronic inflammatory disease(523)(524) and improve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol resistance to oxidation causes of cardiovascular disease related to atherosclerosis(527) through its antioxidant anti inflammatory activities(525)(526).....

b. Alpha-carotene
Alpha-carotene, one of the most abundant carotenoids in the North American diet, is a form of carotene with a β-ring at one end and an ε-ring at the other, not only protects cells from the damaging effects of free radicals(526)  and enhances the immune system(528) in fighting against bacteria and virus infection and inflammation(529)(530), but also inhibits irregular cell growth(531)(532) cause of benign tumors(531) and cancers(532).

c. Beta-cryptoxanthin
Chemically Beta-cryptoxanthin is a xanthophyll which protects our cells from oxidation(538) and provides a source of vitamin A. The phytochemical showed to  enhances the immune system functioning(533)(534) against infectious(537) and inflammatory diseases(535)(536) and reduces insulin resistance(536) and cancers(539)(540) risks

d. Lycopene
Lycopene is a red carotene of the carotenoids group found in tomatoes, watermelons, and grapefruits. This antioxidant is believed to be a powerful fighter against irregular growth(543), such as prostate cancer(541)(542), breast cancer(544)(545) and liver diseases(546)(547). Lycopene has many anti-aging(549) capabilities as well as enhancing immune function(548) against oxidative stress(550)(551) and inflammatory diseases(551)(552).

Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months   

 
References
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(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
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(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
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(507) Serum bilirubin levels are inversely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by Kwak MS1, Kim D, Chung GE, Kang SJ, Park MJ, Kim YJ, Yoon JH, Lee HS.(PubMed)
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(511) Bile pigment pharmacokinetics and absorption in the rat: therapeutic potential for enteral administration by Bulmer AC1, Coombes JS, Blanchfield JT, Toth I, Fassett RG, Taylor SM.(PubMed)
(512) Bilirubin and related tetrapyrroles inhibit food-borne mutagenesis: a mechanism for antigenotoxic action against a model epoxide by Mölzer C1, Huber H, Steyrer A, Ziesel GV, Wallner M, Hong HT, Blanchfield JT, Bulmer AC, Wagner KH.(PubMed)
(513) Confocal laser scanning microscopy detection of chlorophylls and carotenoids in chloroplasts and chromoplasts of tomato fruit by D'Andrea L1, Amenós M, Rodríguez-Concepción M.(PubMed)
(514) Carotenoids(Wikipedia)
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(516) Wood smoke particles generate free radicals and cause lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, NFkappaB activation and TNF-alpha release in macrophages by Leonard SS1, Wang S, Shi X, Jordan BS, Castranova V, Dubick MA.(PubMed)
(517) The Effects of Babesiosis on Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Anatolian Black Goats Naturally Infected with Babesia ovis by Kucukkurt I1, Cigerci IH2, Ince S3, Kozan E4, Aytekin I5, Eryavuz A6, Fidan AF1.(PubMed)
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(522) A and beta-carotene concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy by Kaio DJ1, Rondó PH, Souza JM, Firmino AV, Luzia LA, Segurado AA.(PubMed)
(523) Plasma antioxidant levels in chronic cholestatic liver diseases by Floreani A1, Baragiotta A, Martines D, Naccarato R, D'odorico A.(PubMed)
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(530) Low levels of plasma carotenoids are associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation by Karppi J1, Kurl S, Mäkikallio TH, Ronkainen K, Laukkanen JA.(PubMed)
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(533) Effect of carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin on cellular and humoral immune response in rabbit by Ghodratizadeh S1, Kanbak G, Beyramzadeh M, Dikmen ZG, Memarzadeh S, Habibian R.(PubMed)
(534) beta-Carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin but not lutein evoke redox and immune changes in RAW264 murine macrophages by Katsuura S1, Imamura T, Bando N, Yamanishi R.(PubMed)
(535) β-Cryptoxanthin alleviates diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by suppressing inflammatory gene expression in mice by Kobori M1, Ni Y2, Takahashi Y1, Watanabe N1, Sugiura M3, Ogawa K4, Nagashimada M5, Kaneko S6, Naito S1, Ota T2.(PubMed)
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(538) The carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin stimulates the repair of DNA oxidation damage in addition to acting as an antioxidant in human cells by Lorenzo Y1, Azqueta A, Luna L, Bonilla F, Domínguez G, Collins AR.(PubMed)
(539) Antiproliferative activity of Cyanophora paradoxa pigments in melanoma, breast and lung cancer cells by Baudelet PH1, Gagez AL, Bérard JB, Juin C, Bridiau N, Kaas R, Thiéry V, Cadoret JP, Picot L.(PubMed)
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(544) Inhibitory effects of combination of lycopene and genistein on 7,12- dimethyl benz(a)anthracene-induced breast cancer in rats by Sahin K1, Tuzcu M, Sahin N, Akdemir F, Ozercan I, Bayraktar S, Kucuk O.(PubMed)
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(547) Lipid biomarkers and metabolic effects of lycopene from tomato juice on liver of rats with induced hepatic steatosis by Bernal C1, Martín-Pozuelo G, Lozano AB, Sevilla A, García-Alonso J, Canovas M, Periago MJ.(PubMed)
(548) Lycopene enhances antioxidant enzyme activities and immunity function in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-enduced gastric cancer rats by Luo C1, Wu XG.(PubMed)
(549) Anti-aging effect of Blakeslea trispora powder on adult mice by Hu W1, Dai D, Li W.(PubMed)
(550) The effects of lycopene on DNA damage and oxidative stress on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats by Boyacioglu M1, Kum C2, Sekkin S2, Yalinkilinc HS2, Avci H3, Epikmen ET3, Karademir U2.(PubMed)
(551) Beneficial effect of lycopene on anti-diabetic nephropathy through diminishing inflammatory response and oxidative stress by Guo Y1, Liu Y, Wang Y.(PubMed)
(552) Nrf2, a master regulator of detoxification and also antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other cytoprotective mechanisms, is raised by health promoting factors by Pall ML1, Levine S2.(PubMed)