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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cance(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
In Weight Loss Perspective
Weight loss(733)(734) for obese patients is one of most vital factor to reduce PCOs symptoms(735)(737) and risk of PCOs complications(736)(737). Some researchers found that 5-10% of weight low will improve PCOs features(737) by 25%, including pregnancy(738). How can you lose weight and maintain healthy body for a healthy conception?
The Best PCOs Diet for weight loss
Most women with PCOs are likely overweight or obese according to BMI index. Most diet plans require the endurance and determination of the participants(750).
1. Complex carbohydrate, low protein and only unsaturated fat diet
This is the one which I have made for my diabetic friends, it works well for her. The plan not only helps to stabilize her blood sugar, but also maintain her weight within the normal range of BMI index. If you would like to try, please first consult with your doctor.
a) No Simple sugar
b) Only eat vegetables (prefer rainbow colors), nuts, seeds and limited intake of fruits containing high amount of sugar such as melon. Fruits only should be eaten as soon as after each meal.
b) Limited intake of protein to 1/3 of the daily amount. Meat must be lean (prefer chicken breast) and eat together with vegetables and fruits to further delay the release of sugar.
c) Only use unsaturated fat as toping. Stirring is allowed with occasional fried foods and others.
d) Drink at least 8 cups of pure water and milk ( prefer one cup of green tea and a cup of morning coffee with no sugar and a little bit milk). Since vegetables contain high amount of fiber, drinking more water can prevent constipation.
e) 1/4 table spoon of cinnamon each in the morning and evening. It is said that cinnamon stimulates the production of insulin(752) and regulates the blood sugar in the blood stream(753).
The diet works well for her in maintaining the healthy weight and stabilizing and lowering the blood sugar. Since she does not have PCOs and problem of infertility, it is for your benefit to check with your doctor before applying.
2. Low carbohydrate and high protein diet (Modified diet with a high-protein, low-glycemic load (30% of daily energy from protein plus low-glycemic-load foods)
This is a type of diet most recommended by dietitian for women with PCOs and wanted to get pregnant.
a) If you have symptoms of PCOs and absence of period, you must see your doctor before attempting any weight loss program.
b) If you have kidney problem, do not attempt this program
c) If you have symptoms of PCOs and irregular menstrual period, this diet plan is helpful
The low carbohydrate diet and high protein diet limits daily intake of amount of carbohydrate and encourages you to take a high amount of protein without restricting yourself to the amount of fat intake. With low levels of carbohydrate in the body, you body needs to burn its fat stores for energy, leading to weight loss(754) and lowering the levels of asting LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, and C-reactive protein concentrations(754). In theory, it works well for women with PCOs because by suppressing the levels of insulin(755)(756), The diet improves ovulation(755) and reduce the levels of testosterone(756). It is also recommended that you also engage in moderate exercise to improved the physical fitness level of healthy, pregnant as well(757)(758).
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(733) [Treatment of PCOS without IVF: weight loss, insulin-sensitizing agents].[Article in French] by Pugeat M1.(PubMed)
(734) A 12-week treatment with the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide leads to significant weight loss in a subset of obese women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome by Jensterle M1, Kravos NA1, Pfeifer M1, Kocjan T1, Janez A1.(PubMed)
(735) Body mass index and gonadotropin hormones (LH & FSH) associate with clinical symptoms among women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Esmaeilzadeh S, Andarieh MG1, Ghadimi R, Delavar MA.(PubMed)
(736) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(737)
(737) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(738) A retrospective study of the pregnancy, delivery and neonatal outcome in overweight versus normal weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome by De Frène V1, Vansteelandt S2, T'Sjoen G3, Gerris J4, Somers S4, Vercruysse L4, De Sutter P4.(PubMed)
(752) Chromium and polyphenols from cinnamon improve insulin sensitivity by Anderson RA1.(PubMed)
(753) The potential of cinnamon to reduce blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance by Kirkham S1, Akilen R, Sharma S, Tsiami A.(PubMed)
(754) Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women by Noakes M1, Keogh JB, Foster PR, Clifton PM.(PubMed)
(755) Diet and lifestyle in the prevention of ovulatory disorder infertility by Chavarro JE1, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC.(PubMed)
(756) Beneficial effects of a high-protein, low-glycemic-load hypocaloric diet in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled intervention study by Mehrabani HH1, Salehpour S, Amiri Z, Farahani SJ, Meyer BJ, Tahbaz F.(PubMed)
(757) 30(+) years of exercise in pregnancy by Lotgering FK1.(PubMed)
(758) Effect of a physical exercise program during pregnancy on uteroplacental and fetal blood flow and fetal growth: a randomized controlled trial by de Oliveria Melo AS1, Silva JL, Tavares JS, Barros VO, Leite DF, Amorim MM.(PubMed)