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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cance(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management In Herbal Medicine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
Reduce fat intake less than 30% of total calories with a low proportion of saturated fat and high in fiber from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods for patients with PCOs(827a). Calorie intake should be distributed between several meals per day with restricted intake of snacks and drinks(827)(828).
The fertility herbs
Chaste tree berry
Chaste tree berry is a species of Vitex agnus-castus, genus Vitex, belonging to the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region used in herbal medicine for thousands of year as anaphrodisiac herb and considered as Queen herb in tonifying female reproductive systems(869), including premenstrual problems(865) and menopause symtoms(866)(867)(868)(869). There was report that reports chaste tree berry stems and leaves used by women as bedding "to cool the heat of lust" during the time of the Thesmophoria(870),
Chaste berry tree contains androstenedione which is the common precursor of female sex hormone by converting to testosterone and the estrogens. through the enzyme aromatase(871) by acting as a as a weak partial agonist(872) of the androgen receptor to reduce risk of hormone imbalance that causes infertility. Unfortunately, Epidemioligical evidences suugested that androstenedione may contribute to the worsening of PCOS features as women with PCOs are found to associate to high concentration of androstenedione(873)(874)(875).
Epitestosterone is an inactive epimer of the hormone testosterone which has been used to enhance athletic performance for some athelic during competition(876)(877). The phytochemical is also found to to improve sexual development(878), sexual desire and sexual arousal(879) induced fertility.
3. Hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone
Chaste tree contains plant hydroxyprogesterone which is a steroid hormone produced during the synthesis of glucocorticoids and sex steroids(880), including the corticosteroids and the androgens and the estrogens(881). The phytochemical also raises the levels of progesterone if it is loo low and reduces it when it is too high in the women body(882), induced fertility.
The herb also contaaining iridoid as a intermediator of the biosynthesis of alkaloids improves the immune system in fighting against inflammation(883) and lessens the risks of immune system abnormal function in production of antibody against sperm invasion(884).
Glycoside is a flavonoid acted as an antioxidant in increasing the immune system in fighting against forming of free radical as well as guarding our body against irregular cell browth infection and inflammation(885)(886), and reducing the risk of abnormal function of immune system in production of antibody against sperm invasion(884).
According to Drug.com the most common side effects of taking chaste berry tree include
Acne; cramping; diarrhea; hair loss; headache; increased menstrual flow; stomach pain; tiredness, etc....(887)
Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(827a) Diet and nutrition in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): pointers for nutritional management by Farshchi H, Rane A, Love A, Kennedy RL(PubMed)
(828) The optimal diet for women with polycystic ovary syndrome? by Marsh K, Brand-Miller J.(PubMed)
(829) A clinical study on the short-term effect of berberine in comparison to metformin on the metabolic characteristics of women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Wei W, Zhao H, Wang A, Sui M, Liang K, Deng H, Ma Y, Zhang Y, Zhang H, Guan Y.(PubMed).
(830) Effect of Korean red ginseng extract in a steroid-induced polycystic ovary murine model by Pak SC, Kim SE, Oh DM, Shim KM, Jeong MJ, Lim SC, Nah SY, Park SH, Kang SS, Moon CJ, Kim JC, Kim SH, Bae CS.(PubMed)
(831) [Effects of ginseng total saponins on nerve growth factor expression in rat with estradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovaries].[Article in Chinese] by Kuang HY, Shao H, Hou LH, Wu XK.(PubMed)
(832) Cryptotanshinone reverses reproductive and metabolic disturbances in prenatally androgenized rats via regulation of ovarian signaling mechanisms and androgen synthesis , , , , , , , Elisabet Stener-Victorin(American society physiology)
(833) Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation restores lipid profile to normal in a letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model by Desai BN, Maharjan RH, Nampoothiri LP.(PubMed)
(834) Effect of Aloe barbadensis Mill. formulation on Letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model by Maharjan R, Nagar PS, Nampoothiri L.(PubMed)
(835) Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and histologic study by Visuthikosol V1, Chowchuen B, Sukwanarat Y, Sriurairatana S, Boonpucknavig V.(PubMed)
(836) Therapeutic effects of Aloe vera on cutaneous microcirculation and wound healing in second degree burn model in rats by Somboonwong J1, Thanamittramanee S, Jariyapongskul A, Patumraj S.(PubMed)
(837) A comparative study of three Aloe species used to treat skin diseases in South African rural communities by Coopoosamy RM1, Naidoo KK.(PubMed)
(838) How to Treat an Infected Sebaceous Cyst(WikiHow)
(839) Oral aloe vera for treatment of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia by Ngo MQ1, Nguyen NN, Shah SA.(PubMed)
(840) Antioxidant effect of Aloe vera gel extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats by Rajasekaran S1, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S.(PubMed)
(841) Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Aloe succotrina in Rats: Possibly Mediated by Inhibition of HMG-CoA Reductase by Dhingra D1, Lamba D1, Kumar R2, Nath P2, Gauttam S3.(PubMed)
(842) Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats by Coelho FH1, Salvadori G, Rados PV, Magnusson A, Danilevicz CK, Meurer L, Martins MD.(PubMed)
(843) Traditional beliefs and practices among Mexican American immigrants with type II diabetes: A case study by Lemley M1, Spies LA.(PubMed)
(844) Antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory and antispasmodic activities of Matricaria chamomilla are mediated predominantly through K+-channels activation by Mehmood MH1, Munir S2, Khalid UA3, Asrar M4, Gilani AH5.(PubMed)
(845) Chamomile: an anti-inflammatory agent inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking RelA/p65 activity by Bhaskaran N1, Shukla S, Srivastava JK, Gupta S.(PubMed)
(846) Effects of chamomile extract on biochemical and clinical parameters in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Farideh ZZ1, Bagher M, Ashraf A, Akram A, Kazem M.(PubMed)
(847) Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders by Gyllenhaal C1, Merritt SL, Peterson SD, Block KI, Gochenour T.(PubMed)
(849)Effects of chamomile extract on biochemical and clinical parameters in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Farideh ZZ, Bagher M, Ashraf A, Akram A, Kazem M.(PubMed)
(850) High-rosmarinic acid spearmint tea in the management of knee osteoarthritis symptoms by Connelly AE1, Tucker AJ, Tulk H, Catapang M, Chapman L, Sheikh N, Yurchenko S, Fletcher R, Kott LS, Duncan AM, Wright AJ.(PubMed)
(851) Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. and Mentha spicata L. on kidney tissue in rats by Akdogan M1, Kilinç I, Oncu M, Karaoz E, Delibas N.(PubMed)
(852) An update on plant derived anti-androgens. by Grant P, Ramasamy S.(PubMed)
(853) Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti-androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized controlled trial by Grant P.(PubMed)
(854) Effect of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) teas on androgen levels in women with hirsutism. by Akdoğan M, Tamer MN, Cüre E, Cüre MC, Köroğlu BK, Delibaş N.(PubMed)
(855) Anti-inflammatory effects of the chinese herbal formula sini tang in myocardial infarction rats by Liu J1, Peter K2, Shi D1, Zhang L1, Dong G1, Zhang D1, Breiteneder H2, Bauer R3, Jakowitsch J4, Ma Y2.(PubMed)
(856) Interaction of gypsum and the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides plays an important role in anti-allergic effects of byakkokakeishito in mice by Makino T1, Shiraki Y, Mizukami H.(PubMed)
(857) Anti-ulcer and antioxidant activity of GutGard by Mukherjee M1, Bhaskaran N, Srinath R, Shivaprasad HN, Allan JJ, Shekhar D, Agarwal A.(PubMed)
(858) Anti-convulsant action and amelioration of oxidative stress by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in pentylenetetrazole- induced seizure in albino rats by Chowdhury B1, Bhattamisra SK, Das MC.(PubMed)
(859) Gan Cao(Complementary and Alternative Healing University)
(860) Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with spironolactone plus licorice by Armanini D, Castello R, Scaroni C, Bonanni G, Faccini G, Pellati D, Bertoldo A, Fiore C, Moghetti P(PubMed)
(861) [Effects of compound ganshao paste on the levels of sex hormones and hepatic transaminases in polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model].[Article in Chinese] by Wang YH, Wang HL, Zhang YL.(PubMed)
(862) Phytoestrogens and the metabolic syndrome by Jungbauer A1, Medjakovic S.(PubMed)
(863) Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice by Kim JJ1, Choi J1, Lee MK2, Kang KY3, Paik MJ3, Jo SK4, Jung U4, Park HR4, Yee ST5.(PubMed)
(864) Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation by Kim JJ1, Cho HW, Park HR, Jung U, Jo SK, Yee ST.(PubMed)
(865) [Effects of compound ganshao paste on the levels of sex hormones and hepatic transaminases in polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model].[Article in Chinese] by Wang YH, Wang HL, Zhang YL.(PubMed)
(864) HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries by Kim SH, Lee HJ, Kim JS, Moon C, Kim JC, Bae CS, Park HR, Jung U, Jo SK.(PubMed)
(865) Evaluating therapeutic effect in symptoms of moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus (BNO 1095) in Chinese women" by Ma L, Lin S, Chen R, Zhang Y, Chen F, Wang X.(PubMed)
(866) "Effects of a combination of Hypericum perforatum and Vitex agnus-castus on PMS-like symptoms in late-perimenopausal women: findings from a subpopulation analysis" by van Die MD, Bone KM, Burger HG, Reece JE, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(867) Vitex agnus-castus (Chaste-Tree/Berry) in the treatment of menopause-related complaints" by van Die MD, Burger HG, Teede HJ, Bone KM.(PubMed)
(868) "[Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle].[Article in Hebrew]" by Ben-Arye E, Oren A, Ben-Arie A.(PubMed)
(869) Herbs of special interest to women by Hardy ML1.(PubMed)
(870) Chaste tree(Happyherbcompany)
(871) Devlin, edited by Thomas M. (2010). Textbook of biochemistry : with clinical correlations (7th ed. ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. p. 432. ISBN 0470281731.