Friday, 10 April 2015

Top 10 Veggies for Reducing Prostate Cancer Risk

Kyle J. Norton
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

The widespread of prostate cancer, once considered a disease of aging male, now have become major concerns of governments and scientific community in South East Asian with tendency to effect even younger age population. Suggestions emerged of over consuming bad fats in any time in history accompanied with unhealthy diet and life style may be the possible causes of the disease, linking to the economic prosperity over 2 decades. Foods for diseases' management have been prescribed in folk medicine over thousands of year as one of best medicine of nature in preventing and treating diseases, including prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth with possibility of spreading to the distant parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during physical (rectum) exams.

The vegetables reduce risk of Prostate cancer
1. Cruciferous vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables are the group of vegetables belonging to the family Brassicaceae, including cauliflower, cabbage, cress, bok choy, broccoli etc..
Epidemiological studies has demonstrated reduced risk of prostate cancer in cruciferous consumption. Indole-3-carbinol,  a major chemical compound in Crucifers, are found to be effective in  inhibiting prostate cancer by blocking initiation through induction of phases I and II detoxification pathways and suppressing prostate cancer progression, through down-regulated cell signaling pathways(1). Its derivative 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), showed to activate the AMPK(regulator of cellular energy homeostasis) signaling pathway, associated with suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)(cell regulator), down-regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression, and induction of apoptosis in both androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells(2). Erucin (ER), derived from  Isothiocyanates (ITCs) in crucifers, may hold an anti progressive property in prostate cancer as it showed an effect in increasing significantly p21 protein expression ( regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 and S phase) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation(cell regulation) in a dose-dependent manner to inhibit PC3(Human prostate cell line) cell proliferation(3). Sulforaphane (SFN)  in crucifers also inhibited prostate cancer cell line through impacting epigenetic pathways(4).

2. Tomato
Tomato is a red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belonging to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, tomato is grown world wide for commercial purpose and often in green house.
Studies of tomato, linking to reduced risk of prostate caner have produced inconsistent results.(5)(6)(7)(8)(9). Regardless to these mixed results, intake of lycopene and specific tomato products acknowledged by many researchers is associated in reduced risk  prostate cancer. Lycopene, a lipid soluble carotenoid molecule found in tomato and Alpha (α)-tomatine, a saponin presented in tomato, showed to exert its tumor suppressing effects by increased apoptosis and lower proliferation of tumor cells.(10)(11). According to the Northwestern University Medical School, in a recent prospective dietary analysis identified lycopene as the carotenoid with the clearest inverse relation to the development of prostate cancer(12)(13). In Androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells, Apo-lycopenals or other lycopene metabolites, significantly reduced cell proliferation through alteration of the normal cell cycle(14). In BALB/c nude mice, lycopene caused DU145 cells to accumulate in the G(0)/G(1) (Cell cycle)phase and to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner(15).

3. Garlic
Garlic is a natural superfood healer for its natural antibiotic with antiviral, antifungal, anticoagulant and antiseptic properties.
Garlics intake, are related to decreased risk of prostate cancer(17), in a reviewed study with evidence from 132,192 subjects(18). S-allylcysteine (SAC) derived from garlic, suppressed the proliferation of PC-3 cells and led to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 Cell cycle)phases, as well as inducing cell apoptosis which was accompanied by the decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax and caspase 8(19). Diallyl disulfide (DADS) another compound in garlic, at 25 and 40 microM concentrations  induced cell cycle arrest and  apoptosis in PC-3 cells through increased expression of caspases(extent of apoptosis)(20) (3, 9, and 10), proapoptotic protein Bax(Apoptosis regulator)(21).

4. Sweet potato
Sweet potato is a large, starchy, sweet tasting tuberous roots vegetable, genus Ipomoea, belonging to the family Convolvulaceae. Its young leaves can be made into a delicious dish in Chinese foods but some species of batatas are actually poisonous.
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves, a favor vegetable consumed extensively in Africa and Asia, containing rich sources of dietary polyphenols (anthocyanins and phenolic acids) exerted its significant antiproliferative activity in some prostate cancer cell lines without damaging to normal prostate epithelial cells.  SPGE (Sweet potato extract) altered cell cycle progression, reduced clonogenic survival, modulated cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory molecules and induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells both in vitro and in vivo(22).  In nude mice testing, the extract inhibited growth and progression of prostate tumor xenografts by ~75%(23).

5. Ginger
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil. It has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.
Ginger extract (GE) and 6-gingerol. a chemical constituent found in ginger root, synergistically inhibited proliferation of PC-3 cells(24). Daily oral feeding of 100 mg/kg body weight of GE, inhibited growth and progression of PC-3 xenografts by approximately 56 % in nude mice and reduced proliferation index and widespread apoptosis compared with controls(25). In the comparison of GE and an artificial quasi-mixture (Mix) formulated by combining four most-active ginger constituents at concentrations equivalent,  GE showed 2.4-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than Mix in human prostate tumor xenografts(26).

6. Spinach
Suggestion of intake of typical green and yellowvegetable and  spinach were associated to reduced risk factors for prostate cancer(27) and risk of aggressive prostate cancer decreased with increasing spinach consumption(28). Spinach extract (NAO) exerted its anti profileration of the human PCA cell line PC3 by NAO-induced G1 delay and prolonged cell cycle prolongation as a result of downregulation of the protein expression of ppRb(tumour suppressor pathway)(29)and E2F transcription factors(30). In human prostatic cancer (PCA) cell lines DU145 and PC3, showed an inhibition of cellular proliferation occurred in a dose-dependent manner, increasing numbers of G1 cells (Cell cycle)and reducing ROS(reactive oxygen species) levels(31).

7. Chili pepper
Chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, belonging to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The fruit has been used in human history for spices and cultivated for commercial profits.
Capsaicin, a chemical constituent of chili pepper exerted its antiproliferative activity correlates with oxidative stress induction and apoptosis and potently suppresses the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo(32), inducing the apoptosis of both androgen receptor (AR)-positive (LNCaP) and -negative (PC-3, DU-145) prostate cancer cell lines associated with an increase of p53, p21, and Bax(33)(34). Capsaicin in other study showed to induce apoptosis in PC-3 cells(Prostate cancer) via ROS(reactive oxygen species) generation, JNK(tumorigenetic regulator) activation, ceramide accumulation, and second, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation(35).

8. Carrot
Studies of Dietary intake of the carotenoids beta-carotene and lycopene found in carrot for its reduced risk of prostate cancer has produced inconsistent results. Some studies suggested that dietary intake of beta-carotene and its main vegetable sources was largely unassociated with prostate cancer risk, whereas intake of lycopene and tomato-based foods was weakly associated with a reduced risk(36). In antioxidant study, some researchers suggested that beta-carotene supplementation in men with low dietary beta-carotene intakes were associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer(37) and vegetable and carotene intake was associated with lower risk of prostate cancer among Japanese(38). Unfortunately, there is a report of intake of beta-carotene supplement may increase prostate cancer incidence, 23% higher and mortality, 15% higher in comparison with those not receiving(39).

9. Mushroom 
Mushroom is a standard name of white button mushroom, the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus produced above ground on soil or on its food source, It is a genus A. Muscaria, belonging to the family Amanitaceae and has been cultivation in many cultures all over the world for foods and health benefits.
Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions was found  effectively against human prostate cancer cell line PC3  by inhibition effects on NO production and NF-κB luciferase activity in cells produced by the differentiation of  white blood cells in RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity(40). Also in human androgen-independent cancer PC-3 cells, water-soluble extract (POE) of the fresh oyster mushroom exerted most significant cytotoxicity on PC-3 cells comparisin to 2 other mushroom species with cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis mediated in dose-dependent manner(41). Polysaccharide-K® (PSK), an extract of the mushroom, induced significantly tumor suppression in a reduction of tumor proliferation and  apoptosis enhanced, by lowering the decrease in number of white blood cells, accompanied by increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.(42).

10. Bean sprouts
eaten raw or cooked, bean sprouts are common ingredient in Asian cuisine, made from sprouting beans.
Isoliquiritigenin isolated from bean sprout, used in treatment on the migration, invasion and adhesion characteristics of DU145 human prostate cancer showed to inhibit basal and EGF-induced cell(proliferation) migration, invasion in doses dependent(43) and cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in DU145 human prostate cancer cells and MAT-LyLu (MLL) rat prostate cancer cells, through inhibition of ErbB3 signaling and the PI3K/Akt ((anti-apoptosis and increased cell proliferation)pathway(44). Other researchers also suggested that these inhibition are associated with an evident disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the release of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo(a mitochondrial protein), and the activation of caspase-9(apoptosis)(45).

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(1) Phytochemicals from cruciferous vegetables, epigenetics, and prostate cancer prevention by W Watson G, M Beaver L, E Williams D, H Dashwood R, Ho E.(PubMed)
(2) Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is associated with human prostate cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo by Chen D, Banerjee S, Cui QC, Kong D, Sarkar FH, Dou QP.(PubMed)
(3) Antiproliferative activity of the dietary isothiocyanate erucin, a bioactive compound from cruciferous vegetables, on human prostate cancer cells by Melchini A, Traka MH, Catania S, Miceli N, Taviano MF, Maimone P, Francisco M, Mithen RF, Costa C.(PubMed)
(4) Promoter de-methylation of cyclin D2 by sulforaphane in prostate cancer cells by Hsu A, Wong CP, Yu Z, Williams DE, Dashwood RH, Ho E.(PubMed)
(5) Low prostate concentration of lycopene is associated with development of prostate cancer in patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia by Mariani S1, Lionetto L2, Cavallari M3, Tubaro A4, Rasio D5, De Nunzio C6, Hong GM7, Borro M8, Simmaco M9.(PubMed)
(6) A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk by Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC.(PubMed)
(7) A prospective study of lycopene and tomato product intake and risk of prostate cancer by Kirsh VA, Mayne ST, Peters U, Chatterjee N, Leitzmann MF, Dixon LB, Urban DA, Crawford ED, Hayes RB(PubMed)
(8) Lycopene/Tomato consumption and the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies by Chen J, Song Y, Zhang L.(PubMed)
(9) The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prev29ntion of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies by Etminan M, Takkouche B, Caamaño-Isorna F.(PubMed)
(10) Alpha-tomatine attenuation of in vivo growth of subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft tumors of human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells is accompanied by inactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B signaling by Lee ST, Wong PF, He H, Hooper JD, Mustafa MR.(PubMed)
(11) Alpha-tomatine induces apoptosis and inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation on human prostatic adenocarcinoma PC-3 cells by Lee ST, Wong PF, Cheah SC, Mustafa MR.(PubMed)
(12) Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis by Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, Willett W, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH, Stampfer MJ.(PubMed)
(13) Inverse associations between plasma lycopene and other carotenoids and prostate cancer by Lu QY, Hung JC, Heber D, Go VL, Reuter VE, Cordon-Cardo C, Scher HI, Marshall JR, Zhang ZF.(PubMed)
(14) Lycopene and apo-12'-lycopenal reduce cell proliferation and alter cell cycle progression in human prostate cancer cells by Ford NA, Elsen AC, Zuniga K, Lindshield BL, Erdman JW Jr.(PubMed)
(15) Lycopene inhibits the growth of human androgen-independent prostate cancer cells in vitro and in BALB/c nude mice by Tang L, Jin T, Zeng X, Wang JS.(PubMed)
(16) Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: evidence from 132,192 subjects by Zhou XF, Ding ZS, Liu NB.(PubMed)
(17) Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: a population-based study by Hsing AW, Chokkalingam AP, Gao YT, Madigan MP, Deng J, Gridley G, Fraumeni JF Jr.(PubMed)
(18) Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: a population-based study by Hsing AW, Chokkalingam AP, Gao YT, Madigan MP, Deng J, Gridley G, Fraumeni JF Jr.(PubMed))
(19) S-allylcysteine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells by Liu Z, Li M, Chen K, Yang J, Chen R, Wang T, Liu J, Yang W, Ye Z(PubMed).

(20) Expression of caspases 3, 6 and 8 is increased in parallel with apoptosis and histological aggressiveness of the breast lesion by Vakkala M, Pääkkö P, Soini Y.(PubMed)
(21) Effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) on expression of apoptosis associated proteins in androgen independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) by Gayathri R, Gunadharini DN, Arunkumar A, Senthilkumar K, Krishnamoorthy G, Banudevi S, Vignesh RC, Arunakaran J.(PubMed)
(22) Polyphenol-rich sweet potato greens extract inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by Karna P, Gundala SR, Gupta MV, Shamsi SA, Pace RD, Yates C, Narayan S, Aneja R.(PubMed)
(23) Polar biophenolics in sweet potato greens extract synergize to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth by Gundala SR, Yang C, Lakshminarayana N, Asif G, Gupta MV, Shamsi S, Aneja R.(PubMed)
(24) Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation by Brahmbhatt M, Gundala SR, Asif G, Shamsi SA, Aneja R.(PubMed)
(25) Benefits of whole ginger extract in prostate cancer by Karna P, Chagani S, Gundala SR, Rida PC, Asif G, Sharma V, Gupta MV, Aneja R.(PubMed)
(26) Enterohepatic re-circulation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract by Gundala SR, Mukkavilli R, Yang C, Yadav P, Tandon V, Vangala S, Prakash S, Aneja R.(PubMed)
(27) A case-control study of prostatic cancer with reference to dietary habits by Oishi K, Okada K, Yoshida O, Yamabe H, Ohno Y, Hayes RB, Schroeder FH.(PubMed)
(28) Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer by Kirsh VA, Peters U, Mayne ST, Subar AF, Chatterjee N, Johnson CC, Hayes RB; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.(PubMed)
(29) Enterohepatic re-circulation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract by Gundala SR, Mukkavilli R, Yang C, Yadav P, Tandon V, Vangala S, Prakash S, Aneja R.(PubMed)
(30) Unique natural antioxidants (NAOs) and derived purified components inhibit cell cycle progression by downregulation of ppRb and E2F in human PC3 prostate cancer cells by Bakshi S, Bergman M, Dovrat S, Grossman S.(PubMed)
(31) Slowing tumorigenic progression in TRAMP mice and prostatic carcinoma cell lines using natural anti-oxidant from spinach, NAO--a comparative study of three anti-oxidants by Nyska A, Suttie A, Bakshi S, Lomnitski L, Grossman S, Bergman M, Ben-Shaul V, Crocket P, Haseman JK, Moser G, Goldsworthy TL, Maronpot RR.(PubMed)
(32) Effect of capsaicin on prostate cancer cells by Díaz-Laviada I.(PubMed)
(33) Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells by Mori A, Lehmann S, O'Kelly J, Kumagai T, Desmond JC, Pervan M, McBride WH, Kizaki M, Koeffler HP.(PubMed)
(34) Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, induces expression of androgen receptor via PI3K and MAPK pathways in prostate LNCaP cells by Malagarie-Cazenave S, Olea-Herrero N, Vara D, Díaz-Laviada I.(PubMed)
(35) Apoptosis induced by capsaicin in prostate PC-3 cells involves ceramide accumulation, neutral sphingomyelinase, and JNK activation by Sánchez AM, Malagarie-Cazenave S, Olea N, Vara D, Chiloeches A, Díaz-Laviada I.(PubMed)
(36) Prostate cancer and dietary carotenoids by Norrish AE, Jackson RT, Sharpe SJ, Skeaff CM.(PubMed)
(37) Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk by Kirsh VA, Hayes RB, Mayne ST, Chatterjee N, Subar AF, Dixon LB, Albanes D, Andriole GL, Urban DA, Peters U; PLCO Trial.(PubMed)
(38) Relationship between vegetable and carotene intake and risk of prostate cancer: the JACC study by Umesawa M, Iso H, Mikami K, Kubo T, Suzuki K, Watanabe Y, Mori M, Miki T, Tamakoshi A; JACC Study Group(PubMed)
(39) Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial by Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Huttunen JK, Hartman AM, Haapakoski J, Malila N, Rautalahti M, Ripatti S, Mäenpää H, Teerenhovi L, Koss L, Virolainen M, Edwards BK.(PubMed)
(40)Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus by Ma L, Chen H, Dong P, Lu X.(PubMed)
(41)Cytotoxic effect of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on human androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells by Gu YH, Sivam G.(PubMed)
(42) Polysaccharide-K augments docetaxel-induced tumor suppression and antitumor immune response in an immunocompetent murine model of human prostate cancer by Wenner CA, Martzen MR, Lu H, Verneris MR, Wang H, Slaton JW.(PubMed)
(43) Isoliquiritigenin inhibits migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells: possible mediation by decreased JNK/AP-1 signaling by Kwon GT, Cho HJ, Chung WY, Park KK, Moon A, Park JH.(PubMed)
(44) Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) inhibits ErbB3 signaling in prostate cancer cells by Jung JI, Chung E, Seon MR, Shin HK, Kim EJ, Lim SS, Chung WY, Park KK, Park JH.(PubMed)
(45) Isoliquiritigenin induces apoptosis by depolarizing mitochondrial membranes in prostate cancer cells by Jung JI, Lim SS, Choi HJ, Cho HJ, Shin HK, Kim EJ, Chung WY, Park KK, Park JH.(PubMed)