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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cance(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
In Weight Loss Perspective
Weight loss(733)(734) for obese patients is one of most vital factor to reduce PCOs symptoms(735)(737) and risk of PCOs complications(736)(737). Some researchers found that 5-10% of weight low will improve PCOs features(737) by 25%, including pregnancy(738). How can you lose weight and maintain healthy body for a healthy conception?
The Weight Loss Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroids found in small amount in few foods, including salmon, mackerel, sardines and tuna. The vitamin plays an important role in modulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, tumor growth suppression and promotion in absorption of minerals, including calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc.
The serum level of vitamin D
Low levels of micronutrients, including vitamin D are most common among overweight and obese children. According to the study, low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) levels not only is associated to insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases risks(817) but also incidence of obesity(818).
The study of Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese American Children also supported the link of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese American childrenand suggested that testing for metabolic disorders and low vitamin D levels would be necessary to identify the early indication of NAFLD in childhood will allow for intervention with lifestyle modification, providing a means to reduce the prevalence of NAFLD in children and adults(819).
DR, Peterson CA, and Dr. Belenchia AM. told PubMed "There is a well-established inverse relationship between vitamin D status and obesity; however, it is unknown as to whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to, or is a consequence of obesity"(820). Some researchers suggested that correction of poor vitamin D status through dietary supplementation may be an effective addition to the standard treatment of obesity and its associated insulin resistance(821) as vitamin D deficiency is accounted for the secular trends in the prevalence of obesity and for individual differences in its onset and severity(822).
Vitamin D and adiponectin
A suggestion of association of low levels of Vitamin D and adiponectin is associated to obesity instead of vitamin D itself(823).
Adiponectin is a protein involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.
According to the study by the Università del Piemonte Orientale, in the confirmation Adiponectin tight association with obesity and diabetes mellitus, suggested that multimeric adiponectin may be a key plasma protein that links vitamin D deficiency to pediatric obesity(824).
In support the link between Vitamin D and adiponectin and obesity, the Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University study showed that circulating adiponectin appears to be inversely related to beta cell dysfunction in addition to insulin resistance only in obese women(825). Other in the study insisted that since low serum levels of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (DHCC) attenuates (monocyte chemotactic protein-1)MCP-1 and adiponectin production in human adipocytes, thereby reducing the expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory factors may explain the difficulties so far in determining the role of DHCC in insulin sensitivity and obesity in human(826).
Taking altogether, low serum levels of vitamin D and vitamin D deficiency are associated to increase risk of obesity and obese complications through involvement of vary mechanisms. Over doses of vitamin D supplement may cause excessive calcium absorption, calcification, Urinary stones etc. please make sure to follow the guideline of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.
Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(733) [Treatment of PCOS without IVF: weight loss, insulin-sensitizing agents].[Article in French] by Pugeat M1.(PubMed)
(734) A 12-week treatment with the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide leads to significant weight loss in a subset of obese women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome by Jensterle M1, Kravos NA1, Pfeifer M1, Kocjan T1, Janez A1.(PubMed)
(735) Body mass index and gonadotropin hormones (LH & FSH) associate with clinical symptoms among women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Esmaeilzadeh S, Andarieh MG1, Ghadimi R, Delavar MA.(PubMed)
(736) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(737)
(737) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(738) A retrospective study of the pregnancy, delivery and neonatal outcome in overweight versus normal weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome by De Frène V1, Vansteelandt S2, T'Sjoen G3, Gerris J4, Somers S4, Vercruysse L4, De Sutter P4.(PubMed)
(817) The association of vitamin D status with cardiometabolic risk factors, obesity and puberty in children by Aypak C1, Türedi O, Yüce A.(PubMed)
(818) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) in obese adolescents by Garanty-Bogacka B1, Syrenicz M, Goral J, Krupa B, Syrenicz J, Walczak M, Syrenicz A.(PubMed)
(819) Prevalence and Correlates of Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese American Children by Malespin M1, Sleesman B, Lau A, Wong SS, Cotler SJ.(PubMed)
(820) Vitamin D deficiency & childhood obesity: a tale of two epidemics by Peterson CA, Belenchia AM.(PubMed)
(821) Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial by Belenchia AM1, Tosh AK, Hillman LS, Peterson CA.(PubMed)
(822) Vitamin D deficiency is the cause of common obesity by Foss YJ.(PubMed)
(823) Cardiometabolic risk factors related to vitamin d and adiponectin in obese children and adolescents by Kardas F1, Kendirci M, Kurtoglu S.(PubMed)
(824) Pediatric obesity and vitamin D deficiency: a proteomic approach identifies multimeric adiponectin as a key link between these conditions by Walker GE1, Ricotti R2, Roccio M1, Moia S1, Bellone S2, Prodam F2, Bona G2.(PubMed)
(825) Differences in insulin sensitivity, pancreatic beta cell function and circulating adiponectin across glucose tolerance status in Thai obese and non-obese women by Chailurkit LO1, Chanprasertyothin S, Jongjaroenprasert W, Ongphiphadhanakul B.(PubMed)
(826) Differential effects of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on MCP-1 and adiponectin production in human white adipocytes by Lorente-Cebrián S1, Eriksson A, Dunlop T, Mejhert N, Dahlman I, Aström G, Sjölin E, Wåhlén K, Carlberg C, Laurencikiene J, Hedén P, Arner P, Rydén M.(PubMed)
(827) Diet and nutrition in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): pointers for nutritional management by Farshchi H, Rane A, Love A, Kennedy RL(PubMed)