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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovasular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cance(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
In Weight Loss Perspective
Weight loss(733)(734) for obese patients is one of most vital factor to reduce PCOs symptoms(735)(737) and risk of PCOs complications(736)(737). Some researchers found that 5-10% of weight low will improve PCOs features(737) by 25%, including pregnancy(738). How can you lose weight and maintain healthy body for a healthy conception?
The Weight Loss Vitamins C
Vitamin C deficiency and incidence of obesity
Vitamin C and other nutrients deficiency not only are associated to the risk of Obesity(807) but also enhances the risk of lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance(808). According to the research team at Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, there is an associated link between Obesity and Zinc and vitamins A and C concentration in women from rural Mexico, in a fasting blood sample analysis (809).
Although genetic susceptibility to obesity is associated with gene polymorphisms affecting biochemical pathways which also impacted by specific foods and nutrients. According to Dr. Johnston CS., vitamin C depletion is associated to positively related to body mass, individuals with adequate vitamin C status oxidize 30% more fat during a moderate exercise bout than individuals with low vitamin C status(810)
Vitamin C, the protective effect against obesity
Endothelial dysfunction has found to be associated to the incidence of obesity(811). The study of 76 healthy subjects (50 men and 26 women aged 21-45 years) obese subject, showed a positive effect of vitamin C and indomethacin in reduced oxidative stress contributed to endothelial dysfunction in human obesity(812).
In the evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase of Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin, grapefruit, containing higher contents of phytochemicals, vitamin C, is found to have a great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases(813).
L-Ascorbic acid, in the study of whether the vitamin would facilitate the anti-obesity effects of chitosan and psyllium husk in vivo, indicated that addition of vitamin C in diet influences the reduction in body weight gain and food efficiency ratio, and increases in total fecal weight and fecal fat excretion in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet(814).
Taking altogether, deficiency of vitamin C and other nutrients are associated to increase risk of obese incidence. Vitamin C may be effective in induced weight loss for obese subjects due to its positive interaction in inhibiting oxidative stress causes of endothelial dysfunction. Daily ingestion of high-dose vitamin C may be considered safe, but in rare incidence, overdoses in a prolonged period of time, may cause intra-renal oxalate crystal deposition, a fatal nephrotoxicity(815)(816).
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(733) [Treatment of PCOS without IVF: weight loss, insulin-sensitizing agents].[Article in French] by Pugeat M1.(PubMed)
(734) A 12-week treatment with the long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide leads to significant weight loss in a subset of obese women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome by Jensterle M1, Kravos NA1, Pfeifer M1, Kocjan T1, Janez A1.(PubMed)
(735) Body mass index and gonadotropin hormones (LH & FSH) associate with clinical symptoms among women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Esmaeilzadeh S, Andarieh MG1, Ghadimi R, Delavar MA.(PubMed)
(736) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(737)
(737) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(738) A retrospective study of the pregnancy, delivery and neonatal outcome in overweight versus normal weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome by De Frène V1, Vansteelandt S2, T'Sjoen G3, Gerris J4, Somers S4, Vercruysse L4, De Sutter P4.(PubMed)
(807) High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice by Tranberg B1, Hansen AK, Lykkesfeldt J.(PubMed)
(808) Zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and e are associated with obesity, inflammation, lipid profile and insulin resistance in mexican school-aged children by García OP1, Ronquillo D, del Carmen Caamaño M, Martínez G, Camacho M, López V, Rosado JL.(PubMed)
(809) Zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C status are associated with leptin concentrations and obesity in Mexican women: results from a cross-sectional study by García OP1, Ronquillo D, Caamaño Mdel C, Camacho M, Long KZ, Rosado JL.(PubMed)
(810) Strategies for healthy weight loss: from vitamin C to the glycemic response by Johnston CS.(PubMed)
(811) Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in obesity(Science direct)
(812) Obesity and body fat distribution induce endothelial dysfunction by oxidative stress: protective effect of vitamin C. by Perticone F1, Ceravolo R, Candigliota M, Ventura G, Iacopino S, Sinopoli F, Mattioli PL.(PubMed)
(813) Phytochemistry and biological activity of Spanish Citrus fruits by Gironés-Vilaplana A1, Moreno DA, García-Viguera C.(PubMed)
(814) Anti-obesity effects of chitosan and psyllium husk with L-ascorbic acid in guinea pigs by Jun SC1, Jung EY, Hong YH, Park Y, Kang Dh, Chang UJ, Suh HJ.(PubMed)
(815) Fatal vitamin C-associated acute renal failure by McHugh GJ, Graber ML, Freebairn RC.(PubMed)
(816) Ascorbic acid overdosing: a risk factor for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis by Urivetzky M, Kessaris D, Smith AD.(PubMed)