Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding – Treatments In conventional medicine perspective

The prevalence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) diseases is increasing in subjects aged 65 years and over. Pathophysiological changes in esophageal functions that occur with aging may, at least in part, be responsible for the high prevalence of
1. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in old age.
2. The incidence of gastric and duodenal ulcers and their bleeding complications is increasing in old-aged populations worldwide.
3.  H. pylori infection in elderly patients with H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease and severe chronic gastritis
4.  Almost 40% of GU and 25% of DU in the elderly patients are associated with the use of NSAID(1) and/or aspirin(2).(a)
IV. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as hemorrhaging derived from a source proximal to the ligament of Treitz. It is life threatening and considered as medical emergency, which is followed by high mortality rate, ranging from 6 to 15% in spite of modern diagnostic methods and treatment.
J.5. Treatments
1. In conventional medicine perspective
Some researchers suggested that despite successful endoscopic therapy, rebleeding can occur in 10 to 20 percent of patients; a second attempt at endoscopic therapy is recommended in these patients. Arteriography with embolization or surgery may be needed if there is persistent and severe bleeding(16). Others indicated that Pre-endoscopic management (including use of scoring scales, nasogastric tube placement and blood pressure stabilization) is crucial for triage and optimal resuscitation of patients, and should include a multidisciplinary approach at an early stage. Unless the patient has specific comorbidities, transfusion should only be considered if their hemoglobin level is ≤70 g/l. Endoscopic therapy, the cornerstone of therapeutic management of high-risk lesions, should not be delayed for more than 24 h following admission. Several endoscopic techniques, mostly using clips or thermal methods, are available and new approaches are emerging. When endoscopy fails, surgery or arterial embolization should be considered. Although the efficacy of prokinetics and high-dose intravenous PPI prior to endoscopy is controversial, the use of an intravenous PPI following endoscopy is strongly recommended. Antiplatelet therapy should be suspended and resumed in 3-5 days. Finally, all patients should be tested for Helicobacter pylori by serology in the acute setting(21).
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(1a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1065003/table/T1/  
(21) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22230903

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