Wednesday, 27 November 2013

Sinusitis – Headache/Sinus headache Diagnosis and Management

Sinusitis is defined as a condition of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses of which can develop headache as a result of exposure to a cold or flu virus, or an allergic reaction to pollen, mold, dust or smoke, etc..Sinusitis affects 37 million people each year.
II. Diagnosis and management
1. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, family history and a physical exam, including endoscopy
to rule abnormality of structure cause of chronic sinusitis including nasal drainage ,tumor, polyps, or other sinus obstruction by an endoscopy, a flexible or rigid tube with a lens system for visualization and a light for illumination to examine the interior of cavity of several paired paranasal sinuses.
2. CT scan
A CT scan generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body in details.The pictures are viewed by your doctor to see the extent of the abnormalities, including a cystic fibrosis or a tumor. and it is used not only in the initial visit but also at a later time after medical treatment has been initiated. Dr. McMurphy AB and the team in the study conducted by 96th Surgical Operations Squadron/SGCXL, Eglin Air Force Base, said that CT scanning of the sinuses does not appear to be useful in determining outcomes of intervention in CF patients(29). Other indicated that CT scan assessment of chronic rhinosinusitis is a reliable test. The CT findings in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis remain consistent over time(30)
3. Diagnosis and management of acute sinusitis by pediatricians
In a national random sample of 750 general pediatricians from the American Medical Association Master File. RESULTS. The response rate was 45% (N = 271). Pediatricians reported first considering acute sinusitis at the ages of 0 to 5 (6%), 6 to 11 (17%), 12 to 23 (36%), 24 to 35 (21%), and > or =36 (20%) months. Symptoms thought to be “very important” in the diagnosis of acute sinusitis included prolonged symptom duration (93%), purulent rhinorrhea (55%), and nasal congestion (43%); 60% reported that symptom duration is more important than symptom combination. Symptom durations expected before considering the diagnosis were 1 to 6 (3%), 7 to 9 (17%), 10 to 13 (37%), 14 to 16 (38%), and > or =17 (6%) days. Fifty-eight percent reported using sinus computed tomography scans “occasionally” or more often in the diagnosis of acute sinusitis. Ninety-six percent reported treating acute sinusitis with an antibiotic “frequently” or “always.” Fifty-three percent reported using contingency antibiotic prescriptions “occasionally” or more often for acute sinusitis. Adjuvants used “frequently” or “always” included saline washes (44%), systemic decongestants (28%), nasal corticosteroids (20%), and systemic antihistamines (13%)(31)
4. Medical management and diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis
In a 15-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 200 members of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 73% defined CRS as lasting >12 weeks. Seventy-three percent also believed radiological imaging was necessary for definitive diagnosis, but only 30% believed nasal endoscopy was necessary. Regarding treatment, respondents reported use of oral antibiotics (94%) and nasal corticosteroids (94%) as part of maximum medical management; oral decongestants, oral mucoevacuants, and allergy testing were used only by about one-half of the respondents, and less frequently topical decongestants (38%), oral corticosteroids (36%), and oral antihistamines (27%) were used. Oral corticosteroids were more likely to be used by specialists that self-classified as rhinologists than by other otolaryngologists (p = 0.005), but rhinologists were less likely to use radiological imaging (p = 0.04) as a diagnostic criterion. Pediatric otolaryngologists used allergy testing in medical management more frequently than other otolaryngologists (p < 0.001). Overall, the basis for choice of maximal medical management was personal clinical experience (74%), rather than clinical research results or expert recommendations(32)
5. In a Rhinosinusitis diagnosis and management for the clinician: a synopsis of recent consensus guidelines, for the diagnosis and management of RS and its subtypes, including acute viral RS, acute bacterial RS, chronic RS (CRS) without nasal polyposis, CRS with nasal polyposis, and allergic fungal RS. The Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, the Clinical Practice Guideline: Adult Sinusitis, the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2007, and the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Points of consensus and divergent opinions expressed in these guidelines regarding classification, diagnosis, and management of adults with acute RS (ARS) and CRS and their various subtypes are highlighted for the practicing clinician. Key points of agreement regarding therapy in the guidelines for ARS include the efficacy of symptomatic treatment, such as intranasal corticosteroids, and the importance of reducing the unnecessary use of antibiotics in ARS; however, guidelines do not agree precisely regarding when antibiotics should be considered as a reasonable treatment strategy. Although the guidelines diverge markedly on the management of CRS, the diagnostic utility of nasal airway examination is acknowledged by all. Important and relevant data from MEDLINE-indexed articles published since the most recent guidelines were issued are also considered, and needs for future research are discussed(33)
5. Etc.
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