Thursday, 7 November 2013

Popular #Herbs - Yohimbe Bark

Yohimbe is the name of an evergreen tree, in the genus Pausinystalia, belonging to the family Rubiaceae, native to the Zaire, Cameroon, and Gabon. Yohimbe Bark has been used as herbal medicine in western Africa as a sexual aphrodisiac, especially in stimulating both erection and salivation, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Body Composition
In the determination of the effects of yohimbine supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in professional soccer players, found that supplementation with yohimbine combined with resistance training does not significantly alter the body mass, muscle mass, or performance indicators in professional soccer players. Nonetheless, yohimbine supplementation appears to be suitable as a fat loss strategy in elite athletes, according to "Yohimbine: The Effects on Body Composition and Exercise Performance in Soccer Players" by Sergej M. Ostojic (1)

2. Antidepressant ActivityIn the monitor the effect of addition of yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) to the effect of fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or venlafaxine (dual reuptake inhibitors of both serotonin and norepinephrine) in Porsolt’s forced swim test (FST) using male Laca strain mice, found that yohimbine (2 mg/kg i.p.) was administered 15 min before the administration of different doses of fluoxetine or venlafaxine. Results: Fluoxetine (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) [F = 28.352] or venlafaxine (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg) [F = 17.842] dose-dependently inhibited the immobility period in mice. Addition of yohimbine (2 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant action of fluoxetine or venlafaxine in mouse FST as the animals showed a decrease in the immobility period compared to the fluoxetine or venlafaxine per se group, respectively and concluded that The present study not only demonstrated the association of α2-receptors in the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine or venlafaxine, but also supports its adjuvant therapy with other antidepressant drugs, according to "Effect of Addition of Yohimbine (Alpha-2-Receptor Antagonist) to the Antidepressant Activity of Fluoxetine or Venlafaxine in the Mouse Forced Swim Test" by Ashish Dhir, S.K. Kulkarni(2)

3. Chromium sorption and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III)
in the determination of two low cost sorbents, grape stalks and yohimbe bark wastes used to remove Cr(VI) and Cr(III) from aqueous solutions, results put into evidence that both sorbents are able to reduce Cr(VI) to its trivalent form, according to "Chromium sorption and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by grape stalks and yohimbe bark" by Fiol N, Escudero C, Villaescusa I.(3)

4. Vascular and renal blood movement
In vivo studies with CCD-X in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate a dose-dependent (1-1000 ng/kg) increase in mean blood pressure (p < 0.001) and an increase in medullary blood flow (MBF) (p < 0.001) found that Both the pressor action and renal medullary vasodilation were blocked by endothelinA (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS182874 and endothelinB (ETB) receptor antagonist BQ788 in combination. L-Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg) also inhibited the increase in MBF induced by CCD-X. In vitro studies in isolated perfused kidney and in pressurized renal microvessels confirmed the dose-dependent vasoconstrictor action of this extract. ETA receptor antagonist BQ610 and ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 separately and significantly attenuated the renal vasoconstrictor actions of the extract (p < 0.001 ANOVA), according to "Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats" by Ajayi AA, Newaz M, Hercule H, Saleh M, Bode CO, Oyekan AO.(4)

5. Psychogenic erectile disorder
In the determination of Yohimbine in the management of erectile disorder by means of placebo-controlled but often poorly designed trials, indicated that it does appear to have a modest therapeutic benefit over placebo, particularly in essentially psychogenic erectile disorder, and is generally well tolerated. Yohimbine is not licensed in the UK, according to "Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder" by Riley AJ.(5)

6. Erectile functioning
In the examination of the results of four independent yet convergent meta-analyses to examine the efficacy of yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder from from (i) controlled clinical trials of yohimbine (when used alone), (ii) uncontrolled trials examining yohimbine (alone), (iii) controlled trials of yohimbine when used in combination with other drugs, and (iv) uncontrolled trials of yohimbine plus other drugs, indicated that results document a consistent tendency for yohimbine, and for other medications containing yohimbine, to enhance erectile functioning relative to placebo. We also identify methodological and reporting difficulties that characterize much of the literature, according to "Effectiveness of yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder: four meta-analytic integrations" by Carey MP, Johnson BT.(6)

7. Etc.
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Side effects
1. Overdoses and prolonged period of using can caus nervous excitation, e increased heart rate, headache, anxiety, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tremors, sleeplessness, etc., according to "Prescription for Nutritional Healing, fourth edition" by Phyllis A. Balch, CNC
2. The herb may also cause gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination (a)
3. Yohimbe Bark can interact with other anti hypertension and anti depressant medicine.
4. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding with out approval from the related field specialist.
5. Etc.


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