Monday, 4 November 2013

Popular #Herbs - Red Yeast Rice

Red Yeast Rice is fermented rice with the bright reddish purple color, cultivated with the yeast Monascus purpureus. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to treat gastric problems such as indigestion, diarrhea, lower cholesterol, aid blood circulation and enhance spleen and stomach health.

Health Benefits
1. Cholesterol lowering
In the examination of the cholesterol-lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice supplement, found that Total cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly between baseline and 8 wk in the red-yeast-rice-treated group compared with the placebo-treated group [(x+/-SD) 6.57+/-0.93 mmol/L (254+/-36 mg/dL) to 5.38+/-0.80 mmol/L (208+/-31 mg/dL); P < 0.001]. LDL cholesterol and total triacylglycerol were also reduced with the supplement. HDL cholesterol did not change significantly, according to "Cholesterol-lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary supplement" by Heber D, Yip I, Ashley JM, Elashoff DA, Elashoff RM, Go VL.(1)

2. Dyslipidemia
In the evaluation of the effectiveness and tolerability of red yeast rice and therapeutic lifestyle change to treat dyslipidemia found that Red yeast rice and therapeutic lifestyle change decrease LDL cholesterol level without increasing CPK or pain levels and may be a treatment option for dyslipidemic patients who cannot tolerate statin therapy, according to "Red yeast rice for dyslipidemia in statin-intolerant patients: a randomized trial" by
Becker DJ, Gordon RY, Halbert SC, French B, Morris PB, Rader DJ.(2)

3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and atherosclerosis
In the evaluation of whether administration of Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus; RYR) suppressed angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AAA and atherosclerosis, found that RYR extract administration suppressed AngII-induced AAA and atherosclerosis associated with regulating inflammation responses independent of lipid-lowering effects. Red yeast rice may have preventive potential for patients with AAA, according to "Chinese red yeast rice attenuates the development of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis" by Xie X, Wang Y, Zhang S, Zhang G, Xu Y, Bi H, Daugherty A, Wang JA.(3)

4. Prostate cancer
In the identification of Chinese red yeast rice (RYR), a food herb made by fermenting Monascus purpureus and its effect on prostate cancer, found that RYR decreased gene expression of androgen synthesizing enzymes (HSD3B2, AKR1C3, and SRD5A1) in both type of tumors (P < 0.05). Clinical studies of RYR for prostate cancer prevention in the increasing population of men undergoing active surveillance should be considered, according to "Chinese red yeast rice inhibition of prostate tumor growth in SCID mice" by Hong MY, Henning S, Moro A, Seeram NP, Zhang Y, Heber D.

5. Colon cancer
In the comparison of the mixture of monacolins of Chinese red yeast rice (RYR) versus monacolin K (identical to lovastatin (LV) alone on colon cancer, found that the effect of monacolin-rich fraction of Chinese red yeast rice (MF-RYR)was similar to that of LV, while the effect of Chinese red yeast rice (PF-RYR) was similar to the effect of the whole RYR extract on the proliferation, apoptosis and mRNA level of HMGCR and sterol response element binding protein-2. These results suggest that the matrix effects of RYR beyond MK alone may be active in inhibiting colon cancer growth. RYR with or without MK may be a botanical approach to colon cancer chemoprevention worthy of further investigation., according to "Anticancer effects of Chinese red yeast rice versus monacolin K alone on colon cancer cells" by Hong MY, Seeram NP, Zhang Y, Heber D.(5)

6. Excretion of bile acids
In the assessment of the hypocholesterolemic activity of red yeast rice (RYR) and its underlying mechanism, found that Hypocholesterolemic activity of RYR is mediated at least partially by enhancement of acidic sterol excretion, according to "Red yeast rice increases excretion of bile acids in hamsters" by Ma KY, Zhang ZS, Zhao SX, Chang Q, Wong YM, Yeung SY, Huang Y, Chen ZY.(6)

7. Cardiovascular diseases
In the analyzing the role of omega-3, red yeast rice and garlic in preventing clinical cardiovascular events, found that Omega-3 in modest doses reduces cardiac deaths, and in high doses reduces nonfatal cardiovascular events. Red yeast rice reduces adverse cardiac events to a similar degree as the statins. It is unlikely that garlic is useful in preventing cardiovascular disease, according to "Statin alternatives or just placebo: an objective review of omega-3, red yeast rice and garlic in cardiovascular therapeutics" by Ong HT, Cheah JS.(7)

8. Anticancers
In the classification of two new dehydromonacolins (1 and 3), together with nine known monacolins (4-12) and theirs effect on cancers, found that Compound 1, possessing a C2 side chain, is unprecedented in the natural monacolin family and exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against Hep G2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Dehydromonacolin K (8) demonstrated the most potent cytotoxicity to all three of these cell lines, according to 'Cytotoxic Dehydromonacolins from Red Yeast Rice" by Zhu L, Yau LF, Lu JG, Zhu GY, Wang JR, Han QB, Hsiao WL, Jiang ZH.(8)

9. Hypertension
In the evaluation of the impact of Xuezhikang (a partial extract of red yeast rice containing statin) on reducing cardiovascular events and mortality in elderly Chinese hypertensive patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) enrolled in the Chinese Coronary Secondary
found that Xuezhikang therapy could effectively and safely reduce cardiovascular events and all-cause death in Chinese elderly hypertensive patients with previous MI. This finding may have an important implication for the treatment of elderly hypertensive patients with CHD, according to "Beneficial impact of Xuezhikang on cardiovascular events and mortality in elderly hypertensive patients with previous myocardial infarction from the China Coronary Secondary Prevention Study (CCSPS)" by Li JJ, Lu ZL, Kou WR, Chen Z, Wu YF, Yu XH, Zhao YC; Chinese Coronary Secondary Prevention Study Group.(9)

10. Type 2 diabetes
In the study of the mandarin Hon-Chi, a red yeast rice fermented with Monascus pilous and Monascus purpu and its effect on plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner, found that that Hon-Chi has an ability to raise the release of ACh from nerve terminals, which in turn to stimulate muscarinic M(3) receptors in pancreatic cells and augment the insulin release to result in plasma glucose lowering action. Thus, Hon-Chi seems suitable to employ as the health food for increase of insulin secretion in the prevention of type-2 diabetes, according to "Release of acetylcholine by Hon-Chi to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats" by
Chen CC, Liu IM.(10)

Side effects
1. The herb may because allergic effects
2. Do not use the herb in children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist
3. Please consult with your doctor if you are taking lower cholesterol, high blood pressure medicine or if you have kidney ot liver problem before taking red yeast rice as the herb contain lovastatin.
4. Etc.

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