Monday, 4 November 2013

Popular #Herbs - Pau d'arco

Pau d'arco is a large shrub or tree in the genus Tabebuia, belonging to the family Bignoniaceae, native to the South America. The herb has been used over thousand year in traditional medicine as a analgesic, sedative, decongestant, diuretic and hypotensive agent and to treat leukemia, arthritis, infections, arrested pain, stopped athlete's foot, common cold, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Breast cancer
In the investigation of Taheebo, extracted from the inner bark of the Tabebuia avellandae tree found in the Brazilian Amazon and its effect in anti-proliferative effects in carcinoma cell lines, found that The anti-proliferative effects of Taheebo correlate with down-regulated cell cycle regulatory and estrogen responsive genes, and up-regulated apoptosis specific and xeno-biotic metabolism specific genes. These data validate a rapid mechanistic approach to prioritize efficacious herbal medicines, thereby complementing the existing endocrine therapy for breast cancer, according to "Growth inhibition of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells by Taheebo from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellandae tree" by
Mukherjee B, Telang N, Wong GY.(1)

2. Leukemia
In the determination of beta-lapachone (LAPA), the product of the South American Tabebuia avellanedae tree and its inhibition of the growth of tumor cells, found that LAPA treatment induces direct cytotoxicity in human leukemia cells (U937, K562, HL60, and THP-1) through activation of caspase-3 and subsequent cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Additionally, overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 could not overcome the induction of apoptosis or the decreased telomerase activity in response to treatment of U937 cells with LAPA, according to "Beta-lapachone (LAPA) decreases cell viability and telomerase activity in leukemia cells: suppression of telomerase activity by LAPA" by Moon DO, Kang CH, Kim MO, Jeon YJ, Lee JD, Choi YH, Kim GY.(2)

3. Anti-inflammatory diseases (arthritis and atherosclerosis)
In the classification of the water extract (taheebo) ofTabebuia spp. (Bignoniaceae), native to tropical rain forests throughout Central and South America and its anti inflammatory effect found that ethnopharmacological action of taheebo may be due to its negative modulation of macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses by suppressing PGE(2) production. Thus, this water extract may be developed as a new therapeutic remedy for various inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and atherosclerosis, according to "In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taheebo, a water extract from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae" by
Byeon SE, Chung JY, Lee YG, Kim BH, Kim KH, Cho JY.(3)

4. Anti tumors and Hematopoietic response
In the identification of The effects bark extract and beta-lapachone of Tabebuia avellanedae (TACE) and its effect on the hematopoietic response of tumour-bearing mice" found that the antitumour effect of TACE and beta-lap, acting synergistically with other factors, such as specific cytokines, may result from enhanced macrophage activation against tumour cells. In addition, it is clear from our results that hematopoietic disorders produced by tumours are an important pathological condition that must be considered in drug development, according to "Comparative studies of the effects of Tabebuia avellanedae bark extract and beta-lapachone on the hematopoietic response of tumour-bearing mice" by Queiroz ML, Valadares MC, Torello CO, Ramos AL, Oliveira AB, Rocha FD, Arruda VA, Accorci WR.(4)

5. Liver cancer
In the observation of beta-lapachone, a quinone compound obtained from the bark of the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellanedae) and its effect against hepatocarcinoma cells, found that beta-lapachone may be expected to inhibit the progression and metastasis of hepatoma cells, at least in part by inhibiting the invasive ability of the cells via up-regulation of the expression of the Egr-1, TSP-1, and E-cadherin, according to "Induction of Egr-1 is associated with anti-metastatic and anti-invasive ability of beta-lapachone in human hepatocarcinoma cells" by Kim SO, Kwon JI, Jeong YK, Kim GY, Kim ND, Choi YH.(5)

6. Antimicrobial effects
In the evaluation of dichloromethane and methanol extracts from Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Arrabidaea chica, Tabebuia avellanedae, Punica granatum and Syzygium cumini against Candida species found that the results presented activity of these extracts against Candida species, especially the methanol extract, according to "Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species' by Höfling JF, Anibal PC, Obando-Pereda GA, Peixoto IA, Furletti VF, Foglio MA, Gonçalves RB.(6)

7. Antidepressant
In the evaluation of the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract obtained from barks of Tabebuia avellanedae, a plant widely employed in folk medicine, found that The combined administration of a subeffective dose of WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) and a subeffective dose of the extract (1 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant reduction in the immobility time in the TST. In addition, the combination of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg, p.o.), desipramine (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.), or bupropion (1 mg/kg, p.o.) with a subeffective dose of the extract (1 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST, without causing hyperlocomotion in the open-field test, according to "Antidepressant-like action of the ethanolic extract from Tabebuia avellanedae in mice: evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system" by Freitas AE, Budni J, Lobato KR, Binfaré RW, Machado DG, Jacinto J, Veronezi PO, Pizzolatti MG, Rodrigues AL.(7)

8. Wound healing
In the assessment of beta-Lapachone, a natural compound extracted from the bark of the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellanedae) and its would healing efects found that beta-lapachone can increase cell proliferation, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and migration of fibroblasts and endothelial cells and thus accelerate wound healing. Therefore, we suggest that beta-lapachone may have potential for therapeutic use for wound healing, according to "In vitro and in vivo wound healing-promoting activities of beta-lapachone" by
Kung HN, Yang MJ, Chang CF, Chau YP, Lu KS.(8)

9. Antiulcerogenic activity
In the analyzing ethanolic extract of bark from Tabebuia avellanedae (EET) (30-1000 mg/kg) and its gastroprotective activity, found that this plant has a protective action against gastric lesions, involving the maintenance of protective factors, such as mucus and prostaglandin, besides the reduction of gastric total acidity, according to "Antiulcerogenic activity of bark extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, Lorentz ex Griseb" by Twardowschy A, Freitas CS, Baggio CH, Mayer B, dos Santos AC, Pizzolatti MG, Zacarias AA, dos Santos EP, Otuki MF, Marques MC.(9)

10. Prostate cancer
In the identification of Beta-lapachone, the product of a tree Tabebuia avellanedae from South America and its anti cancer effects found that beta-lapachone decreased the levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein expression without significant changes in the levels of COX-1, which was correlated with a decrease in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Furthermore, beta-lapachone treatment markedly inhibited the activity of telomerase in a dose-dependent fashion. Additionally, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a main determinant of the telomerase enzymatic activity, was progressively down-regulated by beta-lapachone treatment, according to "Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and telomerase activity by beta-lapachone in human prostate carcinoma cells" by Lee JH, Cheong J, Park YM, Choi YH.(10)

11. Antioxidants
In the study of the major volatile constituents of T. impetiginosa were 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (52.84 microg/g), 4-methoxyphenol (38.91 microg/g), 5-allyl-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene (elemicin; 34.15 microg/g), 1-methoxy-4-(1E)-1-propenylbenzene (trans-anethole; 33.75 microg/g), and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (30.29 microg/g) and their antioxidant effects, found that The extract exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides (from methyl linoleate) at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. The extract also inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for 40 days at a level of 5 microg/mL. The antioxidative activity of T. impetiginosa volatiles was comparable with that of the well-known antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol, and butylated hydroxytoluene, according to "Antioxidant activity and characterization of volatile constituents of Taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC)" by Park BS, Lee KG, Shibamoto T, Lee SE, Takeoka GR' (11)

12. Etc.

Side effects
1. Do not use the herb in children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist.
2. Overdoses may cause nausea, excessive bleeding, vomiting
3. Pau d'arco may interact with other herb ot medicine, specially for medicine used for blood thinner.
4. The herb may cause reproductive toxicity effect in male due to its chemical compound lapachol(a)
5. Etc.

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