Sunday, 24 November 2013

Pneumothorax – Diseases associated to Pneumothorax

The pleura is a thin tissue covered by a layer of cells (mesothelial cells) that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall.
A. Pneumothorax is defined as a condition of collection of air within the pleural cavity, from either the outside or from the lung of which affect the lung breathing.
C.2. Diseases associated to Pneumothorax
1. Intraventricular hemorrhage
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is one of the major causes of the cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Prevention and early management of these neurologic developmental problems will require determining the perinatal risk factors associated with this clinical entity. Pneumothorax increase the risk of IVH, and cause of pneumothorax has an important effect in severity of IVH(30).
2. Swyer-James Syndrome
There is a report of a 21-year-old man with a history of bronchial asthma during childhood presented with left recurrent pneumothorax(31).
3. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease of unknown etiology, described since 1918 associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC-LAM) and are reported sporadically (S-LAM). There is a report of 2 patients with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) in an admission of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Distrito Federal, México, both present with spontaneous pneumothorax(32).
4. Osteosarcoma
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of primary lung cancer or metastasis. It is estimated that < 1% of all cases of spontaneous pneumothorax are tumor-associated and metastatic osteogenic or soft-tissue sarcomas are associated most commonly with pneumothorax especially in the setting of cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy. There is a report of three pediatric cases with osteosarcoma that developed spontaneous pneumothorax during chemotherapy with a review of the literature. Two of them had lung metastasis at the time of the detection of pneumothorax and the remaining patient was found to have a bronchopleural fistula(33).
5. Tumours of the lung
Tumours of the lung, primary or secondary, may occasionally be complicated by a pneumothorax, and on rare occasions this may be the presenting feature. Metastatic tumours associated with pneumothorax arise usually from bone or soft tissue sarcomas and hence are more common in the young(34).
6. Interstitial pneumonia
Secondary pneumothorax occurring in interstitial lung disease cases is a refractory and life-threatening condition, because of compromised lung function. There is a report of a 70-year-old woman with interstitial pneumonia was referred to our hospital after treatment failure for pneumothorax associated with empyema(35).
7. Lung infection caused by Mycobacterium marinum
Mycobacterium marinum is a waterborne mycobacterium that commonly infects fish and amphibians worldwide, but transmission to humans can occasionally occur, typically as a granulomatous skin infection following minor hand trauma. There is a report of a case in August 2008, an 81-year-old man was admitted to a hospital for detailed examination of weight loss and an abnormal shadow on chest imaging found to be M. marinum-associated pneumonia and pneumothorax(36).
8. Etc.
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