Sunday, 24 November 2013

Pleural disease – Pneumothorax – Treatments In traditional Chinese medicine perspective

The pleura is a thin tissue covered by a layer of cells (mesothelial cells) that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall. A. Pneumothorax is defined as a condition of collection of air within the pleural cavity, from either the outside or from the lung of which affect the lung breathing.
G. Treatments
G.2. In traditional Chinese medicine perspective

A. Ting Li Zi is also known as Pepperweed/Tansymustard Seed. The acrid, bitter and cold herb has been used in TCM to treat whooping cough, pleurisy, idiopathic pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, ascites, acute nephritis, etc., by enhancing the functions of lung, heart, liver, stomach and bladder channels.
1. Phytotoxicity and antioxidant activity In the study to evaluate the possible in vitro phytotoxic effects of 27 flavonoids on the germination and early radical growth of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L., 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test confirms the antioxidant activity of luteolin, quercetin, catechol, morin, and catechin. The biological activity recorded is discussed in relation to the structure of compounds and their capability to interact with cell structures and physiology. No correlation was found between phytotoxic and antioxidant activities(56).
2. Immunomodulatory activity
In the study to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants, found that the first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata(57).
3. Airways Disorders
in the study of Pharmacological Basis for the Medicinal Use of Lepidium sativum in Airways Disorders, indicated that bronchodilatory effect of Lepidium sativum is mediated through a combination of anticholinergic, Ca(++) antagonist and PDE inhibitory pathways, which provides sound mechanistic background for its medicinal use in the overactive airways disorders(58).
4. Antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities
in the study to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Lepidium sativum in diarrhea using in vivo and in vitro assays, found that Lepidium sativum seed extract possesses antidiarrheal and spasmolytic activities mediated possibly through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca(++) channels, though additional mechanism(s) cannot be ruled out and this study explains its medicinal use in diarrhea and abdominal cramps(59).
5. Side Effects
a. Do not use the herb in case of whooping cough and cough as a result of lung qi or spleen deficiency
b. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without first consulting with the related field specialist.
c. Etc.
B. Chuan Bei Mu
1. Antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory activitiesIn the evaluation the antitussive, expectorant and anti-inflammatory effects of alkaloids – imperialine, imperialine-β-N-oxide, isoverticine, and isoverticine-β-N-oxide, which were isolated from BFW, found that the four alkaloids significantly inhibited cough frequency and increased latent period of cough in mice induced by ammonia. Imperialine and isoverticine showed obviously antitussive activities in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, the four alkaloids markedly enhanced mice’s tracheal phenol red output in expectorant assessment and significantly inhibited the development of ear edema in anti-inflammatory evaluation assay.
2. Side Effects
a. Raw Chuan Bei or Chuan Bei Mu is toxic
b. Do not use the herb in case of cough caused by spleen deficiency or cold with wet phlegm
c. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without approval from the related field specialist
d. Etc.
C. Bai He Gu Jin Wan
According to the JAKE FRATKIN’S COMPREHENSIVE INDEX OFCHINESE HERBAL PRODUCTS IN AMERICAAvailable GMP Products from United States, China and TaiwanJake Jake Paul Fratkin, OMD, L.Ac. in the section of 3A. 4. The formula is used to treat Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pharyngitis, spontanious pneumothorax, cor pulmonale, silicosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, ie. TB by enhancing the Lung and Kidney Yin with internal Dryness of the Lungs.Disease specificity, (subject to Syndrome Differentiation). with Contraindicated in Shi (Excess), including Exterior conditions and caution in cases with concomitant Spleen Qi Deficiency due to sticky nature of several herbs in this formula.
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