C. Pleural plaques
Pleural plaques is a medical condition as a result of exposure to asbestos that lead to accumulated plagues within the pleural cavity(a). Many diseases such as pneumonia, breast cancer, and heart failure can affect the pleural space.,therefore, it is often a secondary effect of another disease process.
1. Restrictive lung function
Long term exposure to asbestos can cause thicken of the pleura of that can interfere with breathing of the lung. According to the study by the Caen University Hospital, isolated parietal and/or diaphragmatic pleural plaques were associated with a significant decrease in total lung capacity (TLC) (98.1% predicted in subjects with pleural plaques vs. 101.2% in subjects free of plaques, p=0.0494), forced vital capacity (FVC) (96.6% vs. 100.4%, p<0.001) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) (97.9% vs. 101.9%, p=0.0032). In contrast, no significant relationship was observed between pleural plaques and FEV1/FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow at 25-75% FVC and residual volume(1).
In the study to compare of one hundred thirty subjects who were found to have pleural plaques and with 1,103 control subjects who had no plaques and showed no changes on x-ray examination, found that no difference in occurrence of thoracic pain was found between the two groups. Dyspnea was more common among patients with pleural plaques, who also tended to have lower lung function values(2).
3. Chronic sputum, dyspnea, and chest pain
In the study to compare the Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in the DPT and PP groups resulting from the two definitions of DPT, showed that chronic sputum, dyspnea, and chest pain was significantly higher in this group than in the PP group(3).
4. Significant reduction in FEV1 and FVC
According to the study by the Division of Disease Prevention and Control, Minneapolis, in Compared with workers with normal pleura, workers with plaques had a decreased mean percentage for predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0)patient with decreased mean percentage for predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0)(4).
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