Monday, 4 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 7 Health Benefits of Alkylresorcinols

Alkylresorcinols is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in whole grain wheat, rye, barley, etc.

Health Benefits
In the review of Antioxidant activity-guided fractionation based on three in vitro, antioxidant assays (Folin-Ciocalteu, TEAC, and leucomethylene blue assays) used to identify major antioxidants in blue wheat (UC66049 Triticum aestivum L.), found that Alkylresorcinols were among the most active antioxidants extractable with 80% ethanol in the TEAC assay. However, this may be due to a color change instead of a bleaching of the ABTS radical, according to "Antioxidant Activity-Guided Fractionation of Blue Wheat (UC66049 Triticum aestivum L.)"by Tyl CE, Bunzel M.(1)

2. Anticarcinogenic effects
found that the fibre through its effect on fermentation increases esterification of bile acids reducing toxicity of the free bile acids and is involved in the production of butyrate with potential anticancer effects including BC. The fibre reduces the enterohepatic circulation of the oestrogens leading to lower plasma oestrogen concentrations. The fibre complex contains bioactive compounds such as lignans and alkylresorcinols that are antioxidative and potentially anticarcinogenic, according to "Can rye intake decrease risk of human breast cancer?"by Adlercreutz H.(2)

3. Alkylresorcinols and human health
In the review of at present, evidence from studies in human subjects does not warrant the conclusion that rye, whole grains orphyto-oestrogens protect against cancer. Some studies, however, have pointed in that direction,especially in relation to cancers of the upper digestive tract. a number of prospective epidemiological studies have clearly shown a protective effect of wholegrain cereals against myocardial infarctions. A corresponding protective effect against diabetes and ischaemic stroke(brain infarct) has also been demonstrated. It seems reasonable to assume that these protective effects are associated with one or more factors in the dietary fibre complex, according to "Rye, lignans and human health"by Hallmans G, Zhang JX, Lundin E, Stattin P, Johansson A, Johansson I, Hultén K, Winkvist A, Aman P, Lenner P, Adlercreutz H.(3)

4. Antioxidant activity and antigenotoxicity
In the incubation with 5-n-alkylresorcinols (chain lengths C15:0, C17:0, C19:0, C21:0, and C23:0) its increased self-protection capacity of HT29 human colon cancer cells against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide and genotoxic fecal water samples using comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis assay), found that the alkylresorcinols did not exert potent antioxidant activity in the FRAP (ferric reduction ability of plasma) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assays. However they were able to significantly inhibit copper-mediated oxidation of human LDL (low-density lipoprotein) in vitro, and pentadecylresorcinol at 25 micromol/L increased lag time by 65 min. The results show that alkylresorcinols have antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity under in vitro conditions, according to "In vitro antioxidant activity and antigenotoxicity of 5-n-alkylresorcinols"by Parikka K, Rowland IR, Welch RW, Wähälä K.(4)

5. Tocopherol metabolism and liver cholesterol
In the investigation of whether AR could have increased gamma-tocopherol levels via inhibition of tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase, HepG2 cells, found that AR significantly inhibited the conversion of gamma-tocopherol to its water-soluble hydroxychroman metabolite in vitro, indicating that AR may increase gamma-tocopherol levels via inhibition of tocopherol metabolism in vivo. The 4 g AR/kg diet decreased liver cholesterol (P < 0.001), but did not affect plasma lipids., according to "Cereal alkylresorcinols elevate gamma-tocopherol levels in rats and inhibit gamma-tocopherol metabolism in vitro"by Ross AB, Chen Y, Frank J, Swanson JE, Parker RS, Kozubek A, Lundh T, Vessby B, Aman P, Kamal-Eldin A.(5)

6. Fat accumulation
In the investigation of whether 5-n-alk(en)ylresorcinols, natural phenolic components of high fiber human diets, may be considered as natural regulators of excessive fat accumulation.
found that 5-n-alk(en)ylresorcinols isolated from wheat and rye bran inhibit glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in triglyceride synthesis in adipocytes, specifically and effectively. Further in vitro studies showed that these compounds also prevent triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, according to "Inhibitory effect of natural phenolic lipids upon NAD-dependent dehydrogenases and on triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells in culture"by Rejman J, Kozubek A.(6)

7. Antimutagenic activity
In the analyzing the antimutagenic activity of fluphenazine, todralazine, anthocyanins and alkylresorcinols, established in a battery of short-term cytogenetic tests, found that the enhancement of apoptosis by fluphenazine and by alkylresorcinols can explain a major part of their antimutagenic activity, whereas in the case of anthocyanins and of todralazine other mechanisms of antimutagenic action should be sought for, according to "Impact of four antimutagens on apoptosis in genotoxically damaged lymphocytes in vitro"by


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