Tuesday, 5 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 12 Health Benefits of Oleuropein

Oleuropein is a phytochemical in the Tyrosol esters, belonging to the class of Phenolic compounds, found a abundantly in olive oil.

Health benefits
1. Osteoblastogenesis
in the investigation of the effects of oleuropein on the processes of osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human bone marrow, found that an increase in osteoblast differentiation and a decrease in adipocyte differentiation when there is oleuropein in the culture media. The gene expression of osteoblastogenesis markers, RUNXII, osterix, collagen type I, osteocalcin, or alkaline phosphatase (ALP), was higher in osteoblast-induced oleuropein-treated cells. Also, the ALP activity and extracellular matrix mineralization were higher when oleuropein was present in the media. Oleuropein in MSCs induced adipocytes to produce a decrease in the expression of the genes involved in adipogenesis, the PPARγ, lipoprotein lipase, or fatty acid-binding protein 4, and minor fat accumulation, according to "Oleuropein enhances osteoblastogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis: the effect on differentiation in stem cells derived from bone marrow" by Santiago-Mora R, Casado-Díaz A, De Castro MD, Quesada-Gómez JM.(1)

2. Hepatoprotective effect
In assessment of the effect of Oleuropein on gene expression profiling of hepatic tissues, found that The oleuropein with which the HFD was supplemented reduced the hepatic mRNA level of the genes that encoded the key regulators of the hepatic fatty acid uptake and transport. In addition, the oleuropein reduced the expression of a number of hepatic genes involved in the oxidative stress responses and detoxification of lipid peroxidation products and proinflammatory cytokine genes, according to "Hepatoprotective effect of oleuropein in mice: mechanisms uncovered by gene expression profiling" by Kim Y, Choi Y, Park T.(2)

3. Breast cancer
In the study of whether hydroxytyrosol (HT) and oleuropein (OL), two polyphenols contained in extra-virgin olive oil, can affect breast cancer cell proliferation interfering with E2-induced molecular mechanisms, found that both HT and OL inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Luciferase gene reporter experiments, using a construct containing estrogen responsive elements able to bind estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and the study of the effects of HT or OL on ERalpha expression, demonstrated that HT and OL are not involved in ERalpha-mediated regulation of gene expression, according to "Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation interfering with ERK1/2 activation" by Sirianni R, Chimento A, De Luca A, Casaburi I, Rizza P, Onofrio A, Iacopetta D, Puoci F, Andò S, Maggiolini M, Pezzi V.(3)

4. Neuroprotective effect
in the determination of determine the potential neuroprotective effects of oleuropein in an experimental spinal cord injury model, found that malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased, and glutathione levels were significantly increased in OE treatment groups. Greater Bcl-2 and attenuated Bax expression could be detected in the OE-treated rats. OE significantly reduced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive reaction and improved behavioral function than the trauma group, according to "Neuroprotective effect of oleuropein following spinal cord injury in rats" by Khalatbary AR, Ahmadvand H.(4)

5. Acute colitis
In the evaluation of the effect of oleuropein on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice in order to provide insight into its mechanisms of action,
found that Oral administration of oleuropein notably attenuated the extent and severity of acute colitis while reducing neutrophil infiltration; production of NO, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α; expression of iNOS, COX-2, and MMP-9; and the translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit to the nucleus in colon tissue, according to "Oleuropein ameliorates acute colitis in mice" by
Giner E, Andújar I, Recio MC, Ríos JL, Cerdá-Nicolás JM, Giner RM.(5)

6. Peptic ulcer
In the review of many studies have been carried out that strongly support the contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes mellitus, and suggest a role in the prevention of peptic ulcer, indicated that various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, these phenolic compounds can be an alternative for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Therefore, considering the important role of polyphenolic compounds in the prevention or reduction of gastric lesions induced by different ulcerogenic agents, in this review, we have summarized the literature on some potent antiulcer plants, such as, Oroxylum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Olea europaea L., Foeniculum vulgare, Alchornea glandulosa, Tephrosia purpurea, and so on, containing phenolic compounds, namely, baicalein, cinnamic acid, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin, and tephrosin, respectively, as active constituents, according to "Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview" by Sumbul S, Ahmad MA, Mohd A, Mohd A.(6)

7. Antioxidant activity
In the evaluation of the effect of the isolation of seventeen compounds (1-17) of antioxidant activity of a 70% EtOH extract from the bark of Syringareticulata, found that among the isolated compounds, jaspolyoside (2), oleuropein (4) and 2-(3,4-dihydroxy)-phenylethyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (17), showed the most potent superoxide anion scavenging activity with the EC(50) values of 4.97, 2.57 and 4.97μM, respectively. The structure-activity relationship indicated that the presence of 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethoxy group is important for exhibiting the activity, according to "Secoiridoid glucosides and related compounds from Syringa reticulata and their antioxidant activities" by Bi X, Li W, Sasaki T, Li Q, Mitsuhata N, Asada Y, Zhang Q, Koike K.(7)

8. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)
In the investigation of the effect of oleuropein aglycone, an olive oil compound, on the modulation of the inflammatory response in mice subjected to collagen-induced arthritis (CIA),
found that plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines were also significantly reduced by oleuropein aglycone. In addition, we have confirmed the beneficial effects of oleuropein aglycone on an experimental model of CIA in a therapeutic regimen of post-treatment, with treatment started at day 28, demonstrating that oleuropein aglycone exerts an anti-inflammatory effect during chronic inflammation and ameliorates the tissue damage associated with CIA, according to "Oleuropein aglycone, an olive oil compound, ameliorates development of arthritis caused by injection of collagen type II in mice" by Impellizzeri D, Esposito E, Mazzon E, Paterniti I, Di Paola R, Morittu VM, Procopio A, Britti D, Cuzzocrea S.(8)

9. Anti cancers
In the assessment of the genotoxic/antigenotoxic, cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the principal bioactive phenols in olive-leaf extracts (OLEs), found that OLE, oleuropein and luteolin showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect with different IC50 (10μl/ml, 170μM, and 40μM, respectively). DNA fragmentation patterns and cell staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide indicated that the mechanism for the cytotoxic effect of OLE, oleuropein and luteolin was the apoptotic pathway, with DNA laddering and cytoplasmic and nuclear changes, according to "A pilot study on the DNA-protective, cytotoxic, and apoptosis-inducing properties of olive-leaf extracts" by Anter J, Fernández-Bedmar Z, Villatoro-Pulido M, Demyda-Peyras S, Moreno-Millán M, Alonso-Moraga A, Muñoz-Serrano A, Luque de Castro MD.(9)

10. Cardiovascular health
In the determination of the effect of oleuropein, one of the polyphenols in olive oil, on vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation in vitro, found that Oleuropein inhibited SMC proliferation through a cell cycle block between the G1 and the S phases, which may be regulated by ERK1/2. These results suggest a mechanism by which olive oil consumption may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular mortality by inhibiting SMC proliferation. according to " Olive oil polyphenol oleuropein inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation" by Abe R, Beckett J, Abe R, Nixon A, Rochier A, Yamashita N, Sumpio B.(10)

11. LDL oxidation resistance
In the comparison of the antioxidative activity of diverse phenolic compounds presented in virgin olive oil on these lipoproteins, found that both virgin olive oil extract enriched in phenolic compounds and phenolic compounds present in olive oil (caffeic acid and oleuropein) are potent antioxidants at very low concentrations. Thus, the beneficial effects of a Mediterranean diet may be partly due to the protective action of these compounds, according to "[Effect of phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil on LDL oxidation resistance].[Article in Spanish]" by Moreno JA, López-Miranda J, Gómez P, Benkhalti F, El Boustani ES, Pérez-Jiménez F.(11)

12. Bone density
In the evaluation of the effects of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, the major polyphenols in olives, on bone formation using cultured osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and on bone loss in ovariectomized mice, found that the olive polyphenols oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol may have critical effects on the formation and maintenance of bone, and can be used as effective remedies in the treatment of osteoporosis symptoms, according to "Olive polyphenol hydroxytyrosol prevents bone loss" by Hagiwara K, Goto T, Araki M, Miyazaki H, Hagiwara H(12)

13. Etc.

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(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20495905
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20845385
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20013881
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22196861
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22114936
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966156
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21955940
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21880869

(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21620995
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21333557
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12605836
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21539839

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