Friday, 8 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 12 Health Benefits of Tangeritin

Tangeritin, one of the flavones, is found in tangerine and many citrus peels

Health benefits
1. Cholesterol
In the investigation of the formulations containing citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), mainly tangeretin, or citrus flavanone glucosides, hesperidin and naringin and theirs anti hypercholesterolemia effect found that PMFs are novel flavonoids with cholesterol- and triacylglycerol-lowering potential and that elevated levels of PMF metabolites in the liver might be directly responsible for their hypolipidemic effects in vivo, according to "Hypolipidemic Effects and Absorption of Citrus Polymethoxylated Flavones in Hamsters with Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia" by Elzbieta M. Kurowska and John A. Manthey, KGK Synergize Inc.(1)

2. Neuroprotective effects
In the evaluation of neuroprotective effects of a natural antioxidant tangeretin, a citrus flavonoid and its effect on Parkinson's disease found that tangeretin crosses the blood-brain barrier. The significant protection of striato-nigral integrity and functionality by tangeretin suggests its potential use as a neuroprotective agent, according to "Tissue distribution and neuroprotective effects of citrus flavonoid tangeretin in a rat model of Parkinson's disease" by Datla KP, Christidou M, Widmer WW, Rooprai HK, Dexter DT.(2)

3. Anti- cancer
In the observation of tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone) and its effect in human promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells, found that Tangeretin showed no cytotoxicity against either HL-60 cells or mitogen-activated PBMCs even at high concentration (27 microM) as determined by a dye exclusion test. Moreover, the flavonoid was less effective on growth of human T-lymphocytic leukaemia MOLT-4 cells or on blastogenesis of PBMCs. These results suggest that tangeretin inhibits growth of HL-60 cells in vitro, partially through induction of apoptosis, without causing serious side-effects on immune cells, according to " Citrus flavone tangeretin inhibits leukaemic HL-60 cell growth partially through induction of apoptosis with less cytotoxicity on normal lymphocytes" by T. Hirano, K. Abe, M. Gotoh, and K. Oka(3)

4. Antioxidants
In the comparison of hand-pressed juice of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) and the peeled fruit of 'Sainampueng' tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) antioxidant effects found that hand-pressed juice of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng serves as a rich source of PMFs, FGs, carotenoids, and antioxidants: 4-5 tangerine fruits ( approximately 80 g of each fruit) giving one glass of 200 mL hand-pressed juice would provide more than 5 mg of nobiletin and tangeretin and 36 mg of hesperidin, narirutin, and didymin, as well as 30 mg of ascorbic acid, >1 mg of provitamin A active beta-cryptoxanthin, and 200 microg of alpha-tocopherol, according to "Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand" by
Stuetz W, Prapamontol T, Hongsibsong S, Biesalski HK.(4)

5. Breast and colon cancers
In the analyzing the tangeretin and nobiletin found in citrus flavonoids and theirs effectiveness in inhibiting cancer cell growth found that tangeretin and nobiletin could be effective cytostatic anticancer agents. Inhibition of proliferation of human cancers without inducing cell death may be advantageous in treating tumors as it would restrict proliferation in a manner less likely to induce cytotoxicity and death in normal, non-tumor tissues, according to "Tangeretin and nobiletin induce G1 cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis in human breast and colon cancer cells" by Morley KL, Ferguson PJ, Koropatnick J.(5)

6. Ovarian cancer
In the demonstration of tangeretin, a citrus flavonoid and its inhibition of cancer cell proliferation found that tangeretin exposure preconditions cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells for a conventional response to low-dose cisplatin-induced cell death occurring through downregulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, according to "Tangeretin sensitizes cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells through downregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway" by Arafa el-SA, Zhu Q, Barakat BM, Wani G, Zhao Q, El-Mahdy MA, Wani AA.(6)

7. Lung cancer
In the study of tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone), a polymethoxylated flavonoid found in the peel of citrus fruits and its effect in lung cancer found that tangeretin inhibition of IL-1beta-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells is, at least in part, mediated through suppression of NF-kappaB transcription factor as well as through suppression of the signaling proteins of p38 MAPK, JNK, and PI3K, but not of ERK, according to "Tangeretin suppresses IL-1beta-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression through inhibition of p38 MAPK, JNK, and AKT activation in human lung carcinoma cells" by Chen KH, Weng MS, Lin JK.(7)

8. Intestinal tumor
In the investigation of flavonoids with polymethoxyflavones found in Orange peel and theirs association with potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities, found that a new Western-style diet (NWD), i.e., AIN-76A diet modified with decreased calcium, vitamin D, and methyl-donor nutrients and increased lipid content) led to increased apoptosis in intestinal tumors, and 0.5% OPE in NWD further increased apoptosis in tumors of the small and large intestine, according to "Chemopreventive effects of orange peel extract (OPE). I: OPE inhibits intestinal tumor growth in ApcMin/+ mice" by Fan K, Kurihara N, Abe S, Ho CT, Ghai G, Yang K.(8)

9. Metastatic melanoma
In the examination of an experimental model of flavonoids tangeretin, rutin, and and theirs effect in diosminpulmonary metastasis and the B16F10 cell subline, found that Rutin- and tangeretin-treated groups also showed reductions of the same index compared with the ethanol group. It would seem that structural factors would better explain these results and the antimetastatic activity of each flavonoid and the respective metabolites, according to "Treatment of metastatic melanoma B16F10 by the flavonoids tangeretin, rutin, and diosmin" by Martínez Conesa C, Vicente Ortega V, Yáñez Gascón MJ, Alcaraz Baños M, Canteras Jordana M, Benavente-García O, Castillo J.(9)

10. Antibacterial activity
In the demonstration of Citrus peels extracts of hexane, chloroform and acetone and their antibacterial effect found that EtOH-soluble fraction yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin are found to be most effective and the findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications, according to "Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts" by
Jayaprakasha GK, Negi PS, Sikder S, Rao LJ, Sakariah KK.(10)

11. Antimicrobial activity
In the study of antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels found that antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon, according to "Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels" by Johann S, Oliveira VL, Pizzolatti MG, Schripsema J, Braz-Filho R, Branco A, Smânia Jr A.(11)

12. Midazolam hydroxylation
In the investigation of the effect of tangeretin on hydroxylation of midazolam found that Tangeretin is a potent regioselective stimulator of midazolam 1'-hydroxylation by human liver microsomes and complementary deoxyribonucleic acid-expressed CYP3A4. However, tangerine juice is unlikely to have any appreciable effect on CYP3A4 in humans. Further studies are required to assess whether in vitro stimulators of CYP3A4 can influence drug metabolism in vivo, according to "Lack of correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies on the effects of tangeretin and tangerine juice on midazolam hydroxylation" by Backman JT, Mäenpää J, Belle DJ, Wrighton SA, Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ.(12)

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