Tuesday, 5 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 12 Health Benefits of Secoisolariciresinol

Secoisolariciresinol, aphytochemical in the class of Lignans (phytoestrogens), found abundantly in
flax seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Health Benefits
In the review of a growing body of evidence suggests that SDG metabolites may provide health benefits due to their weak oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic effects, antioxidant activity, ability to induce phase 2 proteins and/or inhibit the activity of certain enzymes, or by mechanisms yet unidentified, indicated that human and animal studies identify the benefits of SDG consumption. SDG metabolites may protect against CVD and the metabolic syndrome by reducing lipid and glucose concentrations, lowering blood pressure, and decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation. Flax lignans may also reduce cancer risk by preventing pre-cancerous cellular changes and by reducing angiogenesis and metastasis. Thus, dietary SDG has the potential to decrease the incidence of several chronic diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality in industrialised countries. The available literature, though, makes it difficult to clearly identify SDG health effects because of the wide variability in study methods. However, the current evidence suggests that a dose of at least 500 mg SDG/d for approximately 8 weeks is needed to observe positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors in human patients. Flaxseed and its lignan extracts appear to be safe for most adult populations, though animal studies suggest that pregnant women should limit their exposur, according to "Health effects with consumption of the flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside" by Adolphe JL, Whiting SJ, Juurlink BH, Thorpe LU, Alcorn J(1)

2. Antioxidant activities
In the evaluation of the antioxidant efficacy of potential physiological concentrations of SDG, SECO, ED and EL against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH()), and 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-initiated peroxyl radical plasmid DNA damage and phosphatidylcholine liposome lipid peroxidation, found that the efficacy of lignans and controls against AAPH peroxyl radical-induced DNA damage was: SDG>SECO=17alpha-estradiol>ED=EL>genistein>daidzein. Lignan efficacy against AAPH-induced liposome lipid peroxidation was: SDG>SECO=ED=EL. Plant lignan antioxidant activity was attributed to the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyl substituents of SDG and SECO, versus the meta mono-phenol structures of ED and EL. Benzylic hydrogen abstraction and potential resonance stabilization of phenoxyl radicals in an aqueous environment likely contributed to the antioxidant activity of the mammalian lignans, according to "Antioxidant activities of the flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, its aglycone secoisolariciresinol and the mammalian lignans enterodiol and enterolactone in vitro" by Hu C, Yuan YV, Kitts DD.(2)

3. Cardiovascular health
In the investigation of the effects of and its effect on cardiovascular health, found that Flaxseed oil decreases soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 but has no effect on soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble E-selectin, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor. Flaxseed has variable effects on IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. FLC reduces plasma levels of C-reactive protein but has no effects on IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, or monocyte chemoattractant protein. Flaxseed has a very small hypotensive effect, but flaxseed oil does not lower blood pressure. However, SDG is a very potent hypotensive agent. Flaxseed oil decreases platelet aggregation and increases platelet activating inhibitor-1 and bleeding time. Flaxseed and FLC have no effect on the hemopoietic system. SDG is a potent angiogenic and antiapoptotic agent that may have a role in cardioprotection in ischemic heart disease, according to "Flaxseed and cardiovascular health" by Prasad K.(3)

4. Breast cancer
In the investigation of the effect of FS compared with pure lignan at the level it is present in FS [secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG)] and to the lignan-rich fraction [FS hull (FH)] on human breast tumor growth and their potential mechanisms of action, found that All treatments significantly inhibited cell proliferation, but only FS and SDG induced significantly higher apoptosis. Both FS and SDG significantly decreased mRNA expressions of Bcl2, cyclin D1, pS2, ERalpha, and ERbeta, epidermal growth factor receptor, and insulin-like growth factor receptor. FS also reduced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 mRNA and SDG decreased phospho-specific mitogen-activated protein kinase expression, according to "Flaxseed and pure secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, but not flaxseed hull, reduce human breast tumor growth (MCF-7) in athymic mice" by Chen J, Saggar JK, Corey P, Thompson LU.(4)

5. MCF-7 tumor growth
In the elucidation of the component of flaxseed, i.e. secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan or flaxseed oil (FO), makes tamoxifen (TAM) more effective in reducing growth of established estrogen receptor positive breast tumors (MCF-7) at low circulating estrogen levels, and potential mechanisms of action. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, ovariectomized athymic mice,
found that all treatments reduced the growth of TAM-treated tumors by reducing cell proliferation, expression of genes, and proteins involved in the ER- and growth factor-mediated signaling pathways with FO having the greatest effect in increasing apoptosis compared with TAM treatment alone. SDG and FO reduced the growth of TAM-treated tumors but FO was more effective. The mechanisms involve both the ER- and growth factor-signaling pathways, according to "Dietary flaxseed lignan or oil combined with tamoxifen treatment affects MCF-7 tumor growth through estrogen receptor- and growth factor-signaling pathways" by Saggar JK, Chen J, Corey P, Thompson LU.(5)

6. Bone density
In the investigation of the association between habitual phyto-oestrogen intake and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcanaeum as a marker of bone density, we collected 7 d records of diet, medical history and demographic and anthropometric data from participants (aged 45-75 years) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study. Phyto-oestrogen (biochanin A, daidzein, formononetin; genistein, glycitein; matairesinol; secoisolariciresinol; enterolactone; equol) intake was determined using a newly developed food composition database, found that non-soya isoflavones are associated with bone density independent of Ca, whereas the association with soya or soya isoflavones is affected by dietary Ca, according to "Association between dietary phyto-oestrogens and bone density in men and postmenopausal women" by Kuhnle GG, Ward HA, Vogiatzoglou A, Luben RN, Mulligan A, Wareham NJ, Forouhi NG, Khaw KT.(6)

7. Obesity
In the observation in the mice, of the oral administration of (-)-secoisolariciresinol and in addition, subcutaneous injection of (-)-secoisolariciresinol also significantly suppressed the gain of body weight, found that (-)-secoisolariciresinol exerts a suppressive effect on the gain of body weight of mice fed a high-fat diet by inducing gene expression of adiponectin, resulting in the altered expression of various genes related to the synthesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids, according to "(-)-Secoisolariciresinol attenuates high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice" by Tominaga S, Nishi K, Nishimoto S, Akiyama K, Yamauchi S, Sugahara T.(7)

8. Colon cancer
In the testing of the hypothesis that dietary secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) might have a different effect than its metabolites in human colonic SW480 cancer cells, found that SDG demonstrated similar effects on cell growth, cytotoxicity, and cell cycle arrest when compared with its metabolite enterolactone. However, the reliable stability and undetectable intracellular SDG in treated cells may suggest that metabolism of SDG, if exposed directly to the colonic cells, could be different from the known degradation by microorganisms in human gut, according to "Cytostatic inhibition of cancer cell growth by lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside" by Ayella A, Lim S, Jiang Y, Iwamoto T, Lin D, Tomich J, Wang W.(8)

9. Hypercholesterolemia and liver disease
In the investigation of the effects of flaxseed lignan (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside [SDG]) intake on hypercholesterolemia and liver disease risk factors in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, found that SDG-treated subjects, we also observed a significant percentage decrease in the levels of glutamic pyruvic transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase relative to the levels at baseline (P < .01) and a significant percentage decrease in the level of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase relative to the placebo-treated group (P < .05). These results suggest that daily administration of 100 mg SDG can be effective at reducing blood level of cholesterol and hepatic diseases risk in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, according to "Flaxseed lignan lowers blood cholesterol and decreases liver disease risk factors in moderately hypercholesterolemic men" by Fukumitsu S, Aida K, Shimizu H, Toyoda K.(9)

10. Plasma lipids and fasting glucose level
An 8-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in fifty-five hypercholesterolaemic subjects, using treatments of 0 (placebo), 300 or 600 mg/d of dietary secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) from flaxseed extract to determine the effect on plasma lipids and fasting glucose levels, found that a substantial effect on lowering concentrations of fasting plasma glucose was also noted in the 600 mg SDG group at weeks 6 and 8, especially in the subjects with baseline glucose concentrations > or = 5.83 mmol/l (lowered 25.56 and 24.96 %; P = 0.015 and P = 0.012 compared with placebo, respectively). Plasma concentrations of secoisolariciresinol (SECO), enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone were all significantly raised in the groups supplemented with flaxseed lignan, according to "Dietary flaxseed lignan extract lowers plasma cholesterol and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolaemic subjects" by Zhang W, Wang X, Liu Y, Tian H, Flickinger B, Empie MW, Sun SZ.(10)

11. Benign prostatic hyperplasia
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with repeated measurements was conducted over a 4-month period using treatment dosages of 0 (placebo), 300, or 600 mg/day SDG, found that dietary flaxseed lignan extract appreciably improves LUTS in BPH subjects, and the therapeutic efficacy appeared comparable to that of commonly used intervention agents of alpha1A-adrenoceptor blockers and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, according to "Effects of dietary flaxseed lignan extract on symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia" by
Zhang W, Wang X, Liu Y, Tian H, Flickinger B, Empie MW, Sun SZ.(11)

12. Hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis
In the evaluation of many natural products, including vitamin E, garlic, purpurogallin, flaxseed and its components [secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and flax lignan complex (FLC)] and resveratrol have been reported to suppress hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, found that The mechanisms of the ineffectiveness of vitamin E in regression and slowing of progression of atherosclerosis have been discussed. SDG is effective in slowing the progression of atherosclerosis and partially effective in regression of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, according to "Natural products in regression and slowing of progression of atherosclerosis" by Prasad K.(12)

13. Etc.
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(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20003621
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17624649
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19568181
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19776177
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19904759
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736835
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22030618
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21130295
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20797475
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18053310
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18358071
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20874684

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