Sunday, 3 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 11 Health Benefits of Hydroxytyrosol

Hydroxytyrosol is a phytochemical in the class of Tyrosol esters, belonging to the group of Phenolic compounds found abundantly in olive oil.

Health Benefits
1. Longevity
In the determination if white wine and its cardioprotective components possess anti-aging properties by feeding rats with these compounds, found that the hearts expressed SirT, FoxO, and PBEF in the order of white wine>resveratrol>tyrosol>hydroxytyrosol>red wine, while cardioprotection shown by reduction of infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis followed a different pattern: resveratrol>red wine>hydroxytyrosol>white wine>tyrosol, suggesting the existence of different signaling mechanisms for the induction of longevity and survival, according to " Expression of the longevity proteins by both red and white wines and their cardioprotective components, resveratrol, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol" by
Mukherjee S, Lekli I, Gurusamy N, Bertelli AA, Das DK.(1)

2. Anti breast cancer
In the investigation of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol's effects in human breast cell lines, found that
hydroxytyrosol decreases the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in MCF10A cells but not in MCF7 or MDA-MB-231 cells while very high amounts of tyrosol is needed to decrease the ROS level in MCF10A cells. Interestingly, hydroxytyrosol prevents oxidative DNA damage in the three breast cell lines, according to "Hydroxytyrosol Protects against Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Breast Cells" by Warleta F, Quesada CS, Campos M, Allouche Y, Beltrán G, Gaforio JJ.(2)

3. Antioxidants
In the determination of the antioxidant and protective properties of crude extract and fractions from Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells, found that following exposure of cells to H(2)O(2),there was a marked decrease in cell survival and intracellular antioxidant enzymes, and then intracellular oxidative stress, the level of lipid peroxidation, and caspase-3 activity were increased. Simultaneous treatment with the EtOAc fraction blocked these H(2)O(2)-induced cellular events. Hydroxytyrosol and salidroside are major components of the EtOAc fraction, according to "Antioxidant phenolic profile from ethyl acetate fraction of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi with protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells" by Ju HY, Chen SC, Wu KJ, Kuo HC, Hseu YC, Ching H, Wu CR.(3)

4. anti-inflammatory effects
In the investigation of the topical delivery features of this new set of antioxidant molecules as a function of their permeation profiles through the human stratum corneum and viable epidermis membranes, found that encouraging results prompt further investigations on the polyfunctional role that hydroxytyrosol conjugates could have as agents in both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapies, according to "Lipophilic hydroxytyrosol esters: fatty acid conjugates for potential topical administration" by Procopio A, Celia C, Nardi M, Oliverio M, Paolino D, Sindona G.(4)

5. Chronic colitis
In the randomized study of Six-week-old mice of three dietary groups: standard, EVOO and hydroxytyrosol-enriched EVOO. After 30 days, mice that were exposed to 3% DSS for 5 days developed acute colitis that progressed to severe chronic inflammation during a regime of 21 days of water, found that EVOO diets exerted a noteworthy beneficial effect in chronic DSS-induced colitis by cytokine modulation and COX-2 and iNOS reduction via downregulation of p38 MAPK. In addition to the beneficial effect by EVOO, supplementation of the diet with hydroxytyrosol may improve chronic colitis through iNOS downregulation plus its antioxidant capacity, according to "Influence of extra virgin olive oil diet enriched with hydroxytyrosol in a chronic DSS colitis model" by Sánchez-Fidalgo S, Sánchez de Ibargüen L, Cárdeno A, Alarcón de la Lastra C.(5)

6. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities
In the classification of the role played by H(2)O(2) in the chemopreventive activities of 3,4-DHPEA on breast (MDA and MCF-7), prostate (LNCap and PC3) and colon (SW480 and HCT116) cancer cell lines and the investigation of the effects of cell culture medium components and the possible mechanisms at the basis of the H(2)O(2)-producing properties of 3,4-DHPEA,
found that the H(2)O(2)-inducing ability of 3,4-DHPEA is completely prevented by pyruvate and that the exposure of cells to conditions not supporting the H(2)O(2) accumulation (addition of either catalase or pyruvate to the culture medium) inhibited the anti-proliferative effect of 3,4-DHPEA. Accordingly, the sensitivity of the different cell lines to the anti-proliferative effect of 3,4-DHPEA was inversely correlated with their ability to remove H(2)O(2) from the culture medium, according to "Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of hydroxytyrosol on different tumour cells: the role of extracellular production of hydrogen peroxide" by Fabiani R, Sepporta MV, Rosignoli P, De Bartolomeo A, Crescimanno M, Morozzi G.(6)

7. Huntington's disease
In the verification of whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) exerted a brain antioxidant effect, protecting the brain against the oxidative stress caused by 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP).
found that EVOO and HT reduces lipid peroxidation product levels and blocks the GSH depletion prompted by 3NP in both striatum and rest of the brain in Wistar rats. In addition, EVOO blocks and reverses the effect of 3NP on succinate dehydrogenase activity. In brief, the data obtained indicate that EVOO and HT act as a powerful brain antioxidant, according to "Olive oil reduces oxidative damage in a 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease-like rat model" by Tasset I, Pontes AJ, Hinojosa AJ, de la Torre R, Túnez I.(7)

8. Antimicrobial activity
In the assesment of antimicrobial effects, in vitro that wastewaters from alpeorujo oil extraction have against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi, found that the bactericidal effect was due to the joint action of low molecular mass phenolic compounds, although neither hydroxytyrosol, its glucosides, hydroxytyrosol glycol, nor a glutaraldehyde-like compound individually explained this bioactivity, according to "Antimicrobial activity of olive solutions from stored Alpeorujo against plant pathogenic microorganisms" by Medina E, Romero C, de Los Santos B, de Castro A, Garcia A, Romero F, Brenes M.(8)

9. Osteoporosis symptoms
In the evaluation of the effects of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, the major polyphenols in olives, on bone formation using cultured osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and on bone loss in ovariectomized mice, found that the olive polyphenols oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol may have critical effects on the formation and maintenance of bone, and can be used as effective remedies in the treatment of osteoporosis symptoms, according to "Olive polyphenol hydroxytyrosol prevents bone loss" by Hagiwara K, Goto T, Araki M, Miyazaki H, Hagiwara H.(9)

10. Anti-platelet effects
In the investigation of the effects of alperujo extract, an olive oil production waste product containing the majority of polyphenols found in olive fruits, through measurement of effects on platelet aggregation and activation in isolated human platelets, and through identification of changes in the platelet proteome, found that Alperujo extract (40 mg/L) significantly decreased in vitro ADP- (p = 0.002) and TRAP- (p = 0.02) induced platelet activation as measured by the flow cytometry using the antibody for p-selectin (CD62p), but it did not affect the conformation of the fibrinogen receptor as measured by flow cytometry using the antibodies for anti-fibrinogen, CD42a and CD42b. Alperujo extract (100 mg/L) inhibited both collagen- and TRAP-induced platelet aggregation by 5% (p < 0.05), and a combination of hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, according to "Anti-platelet effects of olive oil extract: in vitro functional and proteomic studies" by de Roos B, Zhang X, Rodriguez Gutierrez G, Wood S, Rucklidge GJ, Reid MD, Duncan GJ, Cantlay LL, Duthie GG, O'Kennedy N.(10)

11. Cardiovascular disease
In the evaluation of whether the consumption of hydroxytyrosol-enriched sunflower oil (HSO) improves certain CVD biomarker values, found that the HSO group displayed a significantly higher level (P < 0·01) of arylesterase activity and significantly lower levels of oxidised LDL and sVCAM-1 (both P < 0·05) than the control group. These results suggest that HSO may help prevent CVD, according to "Effects of hydroxytyrosol-enriched sunflower oil consumption on CVD risk factors" by Vázquez-Velasco M, Esperanza Díaz L, Lucas R, Gómez-Martínez S, Bastida S, Marcos A, Sánchez-Muniz FJ.(11)

12. Etc.

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