Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Leukemia

Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmaceutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
Many studies have proven that they can treat diseases and cancers because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmaceutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure diseases and cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
Leukemia is defined as condition of abnormal increase of white blood cells produced by the bone marrow and/or the lymphatic system. Depending to the malignant granulocytes or lymphocytes, leukemia is classified into myelogenous or lymphoblastic leukemia.
Bone marrow is soft tissue inside the hollow center of major bone. including spine, pelvis, under arm, leg. etc.

Types of leukemia
Leukemia can be classified into 2 types
A. Acute leukemia
Acute leukemia is defined as condition of rapid increase in the numbers of extreme immature white blood cells which appear in the blood stream into other parts of the body, including tissue and organs.
1. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer of the abnormal growth of extreme immature lymphocytes overproduced by the bone marrow and/or lymphatic system. Since it has a tendency to multiply quickly, it can lead to death to other normal white blood cells in the bone marrow and/or lympaphatic system. In ALL, lymphocytes appear immature in blood stream.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is most common children forms of leukemia with about 80% of all cases.

2. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a cancer of myelogenous lining cause of rapid growth of abnormal granulocytes accumulated in the bone marrow, interfering with the normal blood cells. In AML, granulocytes appear immature in blood stream.


B. Chronic leukemia
Chronic leukemia is defined as condition of slow but still excessive build up of relatively mature abnormal white blood cells. It has a tendency to spread slowly to other parts of the body through bloodstream and/or lymphatic system.
1. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is defined as a condition of slow growth and spreading of a group of abnormal white blood cells called B-cell lymphocytes, which fight against infection in our body by produced antibodies. In CLL, B-cell lymphocytes have become abnormal and grow out of control. They appear less immature in the bloodstream.

2. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is also defined as condition of slow growth and spreading of abnormal granulocytes. In CML, granulocytes have become abnormal and growth uncontrollably in the bone marrow and/or lymphatic system and appear less immature in the blood stream.

Types of food to prevent and treat Leukemia
1. Green tea
In the study to investigate the association between green tea consumption and leukemia, Dr. Kuo YC, and scientists at the Harvard School of Public Health, indicated that a significant inverse association between green tea consumption and leukemia risk was found in individuals aged 16-29 years, whereas no significant association was found in the younger age groups. For the older group with higher amounts of tea consumption (>550 units of catechins), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) compared with the group without tea consumption was 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23-0.97]. After we adjusted for smoking status and medical irradiation exposure, the overall OR for all participants was 0.49 (95% CI = 0.27-0.91), indicating an inverse relation between large amounts of catechins and leukemia(1).

2. Curcumin
Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in Turmeric. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red. In the study to investigate the anti-cancer effect and action of curcumin on THP-1 cells, showed that Curcumin induced cell apoptosis of THP-1 cells as shown by cell viability, cell cycle analysis and caspase activity. Curcumin significantly increased the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and their downstream molecules (c-Jun and Jun B). Inhibitor of JNK and ERK reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of curcumin on THP-1 cells as evidenced by caspase activity and the activation of ERK/JNK/Jun cascades. On the contrary, the pro-apoptotic effect of curcumin was abolished in the differentiated THP-1 cells mediated by PMA(2).

3. Rosemary
Carnosic acid is a phytochemical monophenols, found in Rosemary and also in variety of other plants have demonstrated to decrease viability of the human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line, HL-60, in dose- and time-dependent manners, and induced G(1) arrest and apoptosis. Carnosic acid also augmented these effects when induced by a low (physiological) concentration of arsenic trioxide, which was associated with upregulation of p27 and activation of caspase-9(3).

4. Artichokes
Silibinin, a plytochemicals is found abundantly in Artichokes. Researchers at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, showed that combinations of the dietary plant polyphenols--curcumin and carnosic acid--at noncytotoxic concentrations of each agent, produced a synergistic antiproliferative effect and a massive apoptotic cell death in HL-60 and KG-1a human AML cells. In contrast, combinations of curcumin and another plant polyphenol silibinin had a predominantly additive cytostatic effect, without pronounced cytotoxicity(4).

5. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18752033
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22443687 
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18652763 

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