Friday, 22 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Insomnia

Insomnia is a sign and symptom of sleep disorder and defined as a condition in which a person has a difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep or sleep of poor quality that can lead to substantial impairments in the quality of life and functional capacity of an individual. Most adults have experienced insomnia sometimes in their life. According to statistic, more than 30% of the population suffers from insomnia, one in three people suffer from some form of insomnia during their lifetime and women suffer from insomnia more often than men.

Types of food to prevent and treat Insomnia
1. Lemon balm leaf
Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. In the 15-day study to evaluate the efficacy of Cyracos(®)( a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract) on stressed volunteers, who have mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Using clinician rating criteria, primary outcomes showed improvement of symptoms, found that Cyracos(®) reduced anxiety manifestations by 18% (p < 0.01), ameliorated anxiety-associated symptoms by 15% (p < 0.01) and lowered insomnia by 42% (p < 0.01). As much as 95% of subjects (19/20) responded to treatment, of which 70% (14/20) achieved full remission for anxiety, 85% (17/20) for insomnia, and 70% (14/20) for both(1).

2.  Turkey
In the study to assess the effect of L-tryptophan in reducing sleep onset time on the first night of administration in doses ranging from 1 to 15 g, showed that L-tryptophan treatment alternates with an L-tryptophan-free interval until improvement occurs. The absence of side effects and lack of development of tolerance in long-term use are important factors in the decision to embark upon a trial of L-tryptophan treatment. In addition, L-tryptophan administration is not associated with impairment of visuomotor, cognitive, or memory performance, nor does it elevate threshold for arousal from sleep(2).

3. Saffron
In the study to evaluate the sleep-promoting activity of crocin and crocetin (Two carotenoid pigments, crocin and crocetin, are the major components responsible for the various pharmacological activities of C. sativus L. ) by monitoring the locomotor activity and electroencephalogram after administration of these components to mice, showed that Crocin (30 and 100 mg/kg) increased the total time of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep by 60 and 170%, respectively, during a 4-h period from 20:00 to 24:00 after its intraperitoneal administration at a lights-off time of 20:00. Crocetin (100 mg/kg) also increased the total time of non-REM sleep by 50% after the administration. These compounds did not change the amount of REM sleep or show any adverse effects, such as rebound insomnia, after the induction of sleep(3).

4. Kiwifruit
In the study to assess the effects of kiwifruit on sleep patterns, including sleep onset, duration, and quality in a free-living, self-controlled diet design, found that the total sleep time and sleep efficiency were significantly increased (13.4% and 5.41%, respectively). Kiwifruit consumption may improve sleep onset, duration, and efficiency in adults with self-reported sleep disturbances. Further investigation of the sleep-promoting properties of kiwifruit may be warranted(4).

5. Etc.

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