Thursday, 21 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Eczema

Eczema is defined a condition of chronic skin disorder as a result of outer skin inflammation which can lead to scaly,  itchy rashes, bumpy, weeping rash, thickened plaques of the skin.

1. Peanut oil
In a  cross-sectional study examined the association between intake levels and the prevalence of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis in Japanese children, found that the prevalences of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis in the previous 12 months were 7.0% and 8.0%, respectively. Consumption of PUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid, n-6 PUFAs, and linoleic acid was positively associated with the prevalence of eczema: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between extreme quintiles (95% confidence intervals [CIs], P for trend) were 1.26 (1.07-1.48, 0.04), 1.31 (1.11-1.54, 0.009), 1.31 (1.12-1.55, 0.003), 1.26 (1.07-1.48, 0.01), and 1.27 (1.08-1.49, 0.01), respectively. Arachidonic acid intake was independently inversely related to eczema: the adjusted OR between extreme quintiles was 0.81 (0.69-0.95, 0.0008). Eczema was not associated with eicosapentaenoic or docosahexaenoic acid intake, or with the ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA intake. Only arachidonic acid (found abundantly in peanut oil) intake was statistically significantly related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis, showing a clear inverse linear trend: the adjusted OR between extreme quintiles was 0.86 (0.74-0.997, 0.03)(1).

2. Probiotics 
In in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study to investigate the potential of probiotics to control allergic inflammation at an early age, found that he SCORAD score reflecting the extent and severity of atopic eczema was 16 (7-25) during breast-feeding, median (interquartile range). After 2 months, a significant improvement in skin condition occurred in patients given probiotic-supplemented formulas, as compared to the unsupplemented group; chi(2) = 12.27, P = 0.002. SCORAD decreased in the Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 group to 0 (0-3.8), and in the Lactobacillus GG group to 1 (0.1-8.7), vs unsupplemented 13.4 (4.5-18.2), median (interquartile range), in parallel with a reduction in the concentration of soluble CD4 in serum and eosinophilic protein X in urine(2).

3. Wheat Germ and whole nut
in the study to study assess whether serum carotenoids and tocopherols are associated with atopic diseases (eczema and asthma) in 10- and 13-yr-olds in a Japanese community, indicated that no associations between serum carotenoids and atopic diseases. However, odds ratios (OR)s for the third and fourth quartiles of serum alpha-tocopherol with atopic eczema were 0.33 (95% confidence interval: 0.15-0.73) and 0.36 (0.14-0.89), respectively, and the trend was negatively significant (P(trend) = 0.048). We did not find a significant association for asthma. In conclusion, serum alpha-tocopherol was negatively associated with the prevalence of eczema. Serum carotenoids did not show definitive protective effects in Japanese youth(3)

4. Fish
In the study to evaluate  the association between cod liver oil and fish consumption during pregnancy and in the first year of life and asthma and eczema at 2 years of age, indicated that Fish consumption in infancy was more important than maternal fish intake during pregnancy in preventing eczema in childhood. The intake of fish per se, not specifically n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, was most important in preventing eczema(4).

5. Cheese and egg
 A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study with intraindividual left/right comparison was set up to determine whether topical vitamin B(12) would be effective in children with eczema, indicated that skin treated with topical vitamin B(12) improved significantly more than placebo treated skin at 2 and 4 weeks (p = 0.02, 0.01 respectively)(5).

6. Etc.
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