Thursday, 21 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is defined as a condition of inflammatory bowel diseases, which can effect any part ( from the mouth to the end of the rectum) of gastrointestinal diseases.

Types of food to prevent and treat Crohn's disease
1. Fish oil
Crohn's disease is associated with altered bone turnover that may be influenced by nutritional status, the systemic inflammatory response, cytokine production by circulating (peripheral blood) mononuclear cells (PBMC) and antioxidant micronutrient intake. In the study to investigate hgh-dose fish oil is associated with reductions in disease relapse and inflammatory markers, and modulates PBMC function, showed that dietary supplementation in Crohn's disease with high intakes of EPA and DHA, as fish oil, plus antioxidants was associated with a modulated production of interferon-gamma by PBMC but not altered indices of bone turnover(1).

2.  Green tea
The bioactive compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, has been shown to target histamine-producing cells producing great alterations in their behavior, with relevant effects on their proliferative potential, as well as their adhesion, migration, and invasion potentials. EGCG has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoral, and anti-angiogenic effects and to be a potent inhibitor of the histamine-producing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase. Herein, we review the many specific effects of EGCG on concrete molecular targets of histamine-producing cells and discuss the relevance of these data to support the potential therapeutic interest of this compound to treat inflammation-dependent diseases(2).

3. Skin and seed of grape
in the study to examine the response to resveratrol by cultured smooth muscle cells isolated from colons of untreated Lewis rats, found that resveratrol decreases intestinal smooth muscle cell numbers through its effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and also decreases collagen synthesis by the cells. These effects could be useful in preventing the smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition that characterize stricture formation in Crohn's disease(3).

4. Turmeric
The up regulation of gut mucosal cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and oxidative stress have been related to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). In the study to investigate an immune-mediated model of colitis. TNF-α injected intraperitonally to mice induced a dose-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into abdominal mesentery, showed that AG and Cur treatments significantly attenuated the hallmarks of oxidative stress, neutrophils influx and ROS-related cellular and histological damages, in TNF-α-treated mice. Taken together, our results provide insights into the role of phagocytes-derived oxidants in TNF-α-colitis in mice. Cur and AG, by inhibiting neutrophils priming and iNOsynthase could be effective against oxidative bowel damages induced in IBD by imbalanced gut immune response(4)

5. Rice bran and oats
In the study to investigate  the effects of tocotrienols on human intestinal fibroblast (HIF) proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, and synthesis of ECM, showed that Tocotrienols exert multiple effects on HIF, reducing cell proliferation, enhancing programmed cell death through apoptosis and autophagy, and decreasing ECM production. Considering their in vitro antifibrogenic properties, tocotrienols could be useful to treat or prevent bowel fibrosis in CD patients(5).

6. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16115360
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20652470
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22052016
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22036766
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20684017

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