Many studies have proven that they can treat cancers and diseases, because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmaceutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers and diseases can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
Coronary heart disease is defined as a condition of narrowing coronary arteries that lead to blockage of the blood flow in the arteries as a result of hardening arterial wall, cholesterol building up in the arteries, chemicals, such as cadmium clog up arteries, etc. affecting the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States.
Foods to prevent and treat Coronary heart disease
The aim of diet is to reduce the risk of underlining causes of coronary heart diseases, such as lowering cholesterol, lower blood pressure, reduce the risk of diabetes, lipid perioxidation, etc., causes of the diseases
1. Dulse is a red seaweed of genus Palmaria, belong to Family Palmariaceae that grows attached to rocks by a "holdfast" in the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific. It is commonly used in Ireland and Atlantic Canada both as food and medicinally and is now shipped around the globe. Dulse is found in many health food stores or fish markets or can be ordered directly from local distributors.
a. Health benefits
In the assessment of nutritional and physiological properties of edible seaweeds is presented. Seaweeds are traditionally consumed in Asia as sea vegetables found that Seaweeds showed important functional activities, such as antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticoagulant effect, antitumor activity, and an important role in the modification of lipid metabolism in human body. In conclusion, seaweeds have a high nutritional value, therefore an increase in their consumption, would elevate the foods offer to population, according to "[Nutritional evaluation and physiological effects of edible seaweeds].[Article in Spanish]" by Jiménez-Escrig A, Goñi Cambrodón I.(1)
In assessment of polyphenol content of the dulse extract of two grades of dulse harvested from Canadian Maritime locations differing in UV radiation exposure (i.e. west versus east coasts of Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and their antiodant effects found that The 1-butanol soluble extract from Grade 1 dulse (reduced UV-exposure) exhibited lower reducing activity versus Grade 2 dulse (greater UV exposure) reflecting a lower requirement for endogenous antioxidant protection. Grade 1 and 2 dulse extracts both inhibited (p0.03) AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation, but had no effect on AMVN-induced lipid peroxidation, demonstrating the aqueous nature of the antioxidants involved, according to "Extracts from dulse (Palmaria palmata) are effective antioxidants and inhibitors of cell proliferation in vitro" by Yuan YV, Carrington MF, Walsh NA.(2)
c. Weigh loss
As a rich source of fiber, dulse beside enhances the process of digestion, it also helps to make the stomach feeling fullness, thus reducing the risk of insulin cause of food craving, leading to weight loss, According to the study of Free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL (3.4 to 5.2 mmol/L) were randomized; 144 were included in the main analysis of participants who completed the trial without significant protocol violations, conducted by Provident Clinical Research, Glen Ellyn(3).
Chlorophyll, a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, beside it is best known for its cleansing body and healing to vital organs properties. It also reduces the binding of carcinogens to DNA in the liver and other organs, thus reducing the risk of cancer according to the study of "Natural compounds in the human diet and their ability to bind mutagens prevents DNA-mutagen intercalation" by Osowski A, Pietrzak M, Wieczorek Z, Wieczorek J.(4), researchers indicated that in order to bind 50% of the mutagen in a complex, less than twice the concentration of chlorophyllin was needed......
2. Green tea
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
In the investigation of theaflavin-enriched green tea extract in association with cholesterol levels of the study of "Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial" by Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, Wu ZG, Li YH, Chen H, Zhu JQ, Jin XJ, Wouters BC, Zhao J.(5), researchers found that The theaflavin-enriched green tea extract is an effective adjunct to a low-saturated-fat diet to reduce LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic adults and is well tolerated.
b. Immune system
In the investigation of the immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea extract in rain bow of the study of "Immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" by Sheikhzadeh N, Nofouzi K, Delazar A, Oushani AK.(6), researchers found that showed that decaffeinated green tea in lower doses of administration could be optimum to enhance the immunity of rainbow trout.
c. Antioxidant Activity
a. In the investigation of l-Theanine is a unique amino acid in green tea effects on ethanol-induced liver injury of the study of "l-Theanine prevents alcoholic liver injury through enhancing the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes" by Li G, Ye Y, Kang J, Yao X, Zhang Y, Jiang W, Gao M, Dai Y, Xin Y, Wang Q, Yin Z, Luo L(7), researchers found that l-theanine significantly inhibited ethanol-induced reduction of mouse antioxidant capability which included the activities of SOD, CAT and GR, and level of GSH. These results indicated that l-theanine prevented ethanol-induced liver injury through enhancing hepatocyte antioxidant abilities.
In the evaluation of Abstract Tea (Camellia sinensis) effects in type II diabetes management of the study of "Anti-Hyperglycemia Properties of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Bioactives Using In Vitro Assay Models and Influence of Extraction Time" by.Ankolekar C, Terry T, Johnson K, Johnson D, Barbosa AC, Shetty K(8), researchers wrote that tea offers an attractive potential strategy to regulate postprandial hyperglycemia toward an overall dietary support for type 2 diabetes management.
3. Flax seed
a. Diabetes and its complication
In the investigation of Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture and its effect on diabetes found that Diet supplemented with Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture ameliorated the antioxidant enzymes activities observed in diabetic rats and significantly decreased MDA levels. Kidney histological sections, showed glomerular hypertrophy and tubular dilatation. In DMS rats, these histopathological changes were less prominent, according to "Flax and Pumpkin seeds mixture ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats" by Makni M, Sefi M, Fetoui H, Garoui el M, Gargouri NK, Boudawara T, Zeghal N.(9)
In the examination of the effects of flax and sesame seeds mixture on Hyperlipidemia
found that Diet supplemented with flax and sesame seeds mixture in pregnant diabetic rats ameliorated lipid parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, level of reduced glutathione and significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde levels, according to "Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid prevents hyperlipidemia and hepatic oxidant status in pregnant diabetic rats and their macrosomic offspring" by Makni M, Sefi M, Garoui el M, Fetoui H, Boudawara T, Zeghal N.(10)
c. Cardiovascular diseases
In the research of Flaxseed and its effect on cardiovascular risk found that flaxseed can modestly reduce serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, reduce postprandial glucose absorption, decrease some markers of inflammation, and raise serum levels of the omega-3 fatty acids, ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid. Data on the antiplatelet, antioxidant, and hypotensive effects of flaxseed, however, are inconclusive. More research is needed to define the role of this functional food in reducing cardiovascular risk, according to "Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk' by Bloedon LT, Szapary PO.(11)
d. Hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis
In the evaluation of Flaxseed (Type I flaxseed) and CDC-flaxseed (Type II flaxseed) and theirs effect onhypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis found that Type II flaxseed reduced the development of atherosclerosis by 69%, according to "Reduction of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by CDC-flaxseed with very low alpha-linolenic acid" by Prasad K, Mantha SV, Muir AD, Westcott ND.(12)
f. Omega 3 fatty acidsBesides well known for its benefits for the maintenance of a healthy cardio-vascular system, according to the study of "Omega-3 Fatty acids for cardiovascular disease prevention" by Defilippis AP, Blaha MJ, Jacobson TA, posted in PubMed(I) and proper ratio of Omega 3 and 6 fatty acid and prevent blood clotting, it also extends the portion of your cycle in which you are fertile, by promoting natural ovulation, according tothe study of "Postpartum ovarian activity in multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation" by Carriquiry M, Dahlen CR, Weber WJ, Lamb GC, Crooker BA., posted in pubMed (13)
a. Antioxidant Capacity
In the investigation of Blueberry and blackberry wines commercially available in Illinois and theirs potential health benefits, found that fruit wines made from blueberries and blackberries may have potential health applications and therefore could contribute to the economy of the wine industry. Practical Application: The majority of wines are produced from grapes, but wine can also be produced from other fruits including blueberries and blackberries, which contain phenolic compounds that may contribute to human health, according to "Comparison of Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Commercially Available Blueberry and Blackberry Wines in Illinois" by Johnson MH, Gonzalez de Mejia E.(14)
b. Metabolic Syndrome
In the classification of therapeutic roles of strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in metabolic syndrome found that strawberries lowering total and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, and decreasing surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules); blueberries lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lipid oxidation and improving insulin resistance; and low-calorie cranberry juice selectively decreasing biomarkers of lipid oxidation (oxidized LDL) and inflammation (adhesion molecules) in metabolic syndrome, according to "Strawberries, Blueberries, and Cranberries in the Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Perspectives" by Basu A, Lyons TJ.(15)
c. Cardiovascular diseases
Since blue berry contains high amount of antioxidant, it reduces ROS production and the effects of oxidative stress due to ROS, apoptosis and improve cardiac function, according to "Mitochondrially targeted antioxidants for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases" by Subramanian S, Kalyanaraman B, Migrino RQ.(16)
5. Wolfberry is the common name for the fruit of two very closely related species, the genus of Lycium, belong to family Solanaceae, native to native to southeastern Europe and Asia.
In the comparison of herbal extract SR10 of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii and its effect on lipoprotein oxidation found that SR10 inhibited erythrocyte hemolysis with IC50 value at 0.25 mg/ml and significantly prolonged low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. SR10 attenuated platelet derived growth factor-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase as well as inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration. according to "Suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by a herbal extract of Radix Astragali, Radix Codonopsis and Cortex Lycii" by Chan JY, Koon JC, Leung PC, Che CT, Fung KP.(17)
b. Hypochlolesterolemic and antioxidative effects
In the researches of the hypocholesterolemic effect and potential of tyramine derivatives from Lycii Cortex Radicis (LCR), the root bark of lycium (Lycium chenese Miller) in reducing lipid peroxidation found that The level of liver cholesterol was significantly lower in LCR1 and LCR2 groups than HF-control. Serum levels of TBARS were significantly lower only in LCR2 group when compared with HF-control group. From the observed results, we concluded that LCR can be utilized as a hypocholesterolemic ingredient in combination with ginger, especially for functional foods, according to "Study on the hypochlolesterolemic and antioxidative effects of tyramine derivatives from the root bark of Lycium chenese Miller" by Cho SH, Park EJ, Kim EO, Choi SW.(18)
Beside as a mineral in carrying life-giving oxygen to human blood cells and maintaining robust health as an essential protein component for metabolism, it also helps in synthesis of a number of essential neurotransmitters like dopamine, nor-epinephrine, along with serotonin. acccording to the study of "Brain Iron Dysregulation and the Risk of Ageing White Matter Lesions" by Gebril OH, Simpson JE, Kirby J, Brayne C, Ince PG.(19), researchers found that The mRNA expression using QPCR suggests a pattern that favours decreased intracellular iron influx, increased ferrous oxidation and increased iron export from the cells. Iron metabolism seems to be changed in brains with WML, increased elemental iron in these brains and in turn increased production of free oxidative radicals could represent a potentiating factor for the development of ageing WML.
d. Free radicals
In the observation of protective effects against oxidative stress in liver tissues of test mice of aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum (LBAE) and ethanol extract of Lycium barbarum (LBEE) found the extracts reduce liver damage and oxidative changes, according to "Effects of lycium barbarum aqueous and ethanol extracts on high-fat-diet induced oxidative stress in rat liver tissue" by Cui B, Liu S, Lin X, Wang J, Li S, Wang Q, Li S.(20)
6. Coriander is an annual herb, genus Coriandrum in the family Apiaceae, native to southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most commonly used in cooking.
Like most plants with spice taste, coriander contains high levels of antioxidant that helps to protect our body's cells from oxidation damage, thus reducing the DNA alternation due to free radicals. A study found both the leaves and seed to contain antioxidants, but the leaves were found to have a stronger effect, accoridng to "Antioxidant activity in extracts from coriander" by Helle Wangensteen, Anne Berit Samuelsen, Karl Egil Malterud(21)
b. Anti bacteria
Essential oil extracted from corriander found to have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, according to "Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: its antibacterial activity and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry" by Silva F, Ferreira S, Queiroz JA, Domingues FC.(22)
Researcher found in experiments in mice that coriander may be used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms, according to "Coriandrum sativum: evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze" by Masoumeh Emamghoreishi, Mohammad Khasaki, Maryam Fath Aazam(23)
In the evaluation of the diet (62·5 g/kg) and drinking water (2·5 g/l, prepared by 15 min decoction) reduced hyperglycaemia of streptozotocin-diabetic mice found that Coriander extract had both insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity, according to "Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: its antibacterial activity and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry" by Silva F, Ferreira S, Queiroz JA, Domingues FC.(24)
f. Hypolipidemic effect
In a study on rats researcher found that coriander seeds were found to have a significant hypolipidemic effect by lowering of levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein due to increasing synthesis of bile by the liver and the breakdown of cholesterol into other compounds, according to "Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action" by Chithra V, Leelamma S.(25)
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