Thursday, 21 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Common cold

Common cold is a condition of viral infection of the upper respiratory system of that lead to symptoms of runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, sore throat, cough, headache, etc.

Types of food to prevent and treat common cold
1. Orange juice and cold water oily fish
In the study to evaluate whether oral vitamin C in doses of 200 mg or more daily, reduces the incidence, duration or severity of the common cold when used either as continuous prophylaxis or after the onset of cold symptoms, showed that indicates that vitamin C plays some role in respiratory defence mechanisms. The trials in which vitamin C was introduced at the onset of colds as therapy did not show any benefit in doses up to 4 grams daily, but one large trial reported equivocal benefit from an 8 gram therapeutic dose at onset of symptoms(1). Other study suggested that suggest that intake of vitamin C from food is sufficient to lower the risk of URTI among women. In addition, it appears that supplement use of vitamin E and vitamin C may reduce the risk of URTI among men, who overall had a lower intake of vitamin C from food than women(1a).

2. Carrot

In the study to investigate Plasma carotenoid concentrations in relation to acute respiratory infections in elderly people, found that beta carotene as a precursor of vitamin A is found in a measurable amount in carrot. In the study of found that elderly people with a high plasma beta-carotene concentration may have a lower occurrence of acute respiratory infections(2).

3. Garlic
In the study to determine whether garlic (allium sativum) is effective for either the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments, showed that of the six trials identified as potentially relevant from our searches, only one trial met the inclusion criteria. This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily) for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour(3). Other study suggested that one hundred forty-six volunteers were randomized to receive a placebo or an allicin-containing garlic supplement, one capsule daily, over a 12-week period between November and February. They used a five-point scale to assess their health and recorded any common cold infections and symptoms in a daily diary. The active-treatment group had significantly fewer colds than the placebo group (24 vs 65, P < .001). The placebo group, in contrast, recorded significantly more days challenged virally (366 vs 111, P < .05) and a significantly longer duration of symptoms (5.01 vs 1.52 days, P < .001). Consequently, volunteers in the active group were less likely to get a cold and recovered faster if infected. Volunteers taking placebo were much more likely to get more than one cold over the treatment period. An allicin-containing supplement can prevent attack by the common cold virus(4).

4. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15495002
(1a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21917705 
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15230994
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22419312
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11697022

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