V. A. Upper respiratory tract infection
Upper respiratory tract infections are considered to be the infection of the airway above the glottis or vocal cords. This includes the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, including the infection of tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, etc,.
E.3. Phytochemicals and antioxidants to prevent upper respiratory track infection
1. Epigallocatechin gallate
Epigallocatechin gallate is a green tea-derived polyphenol. According to the study by School of Medicine, Wuhan University, reatment with EGCG (20 nmol/L) significantly suppressed the increased ROS level in MDCK cells following influenza A infection. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of EGCG (40 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) dramatically improved the survival rate, decreased the mean virus yields and mitigated viral pneumonia in the lungs, which was equivalent to oral administration of oseltamivir (40 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), a positive control drug(26).
Curcumin, in clinically relevant concentrations for topical use, displayed strong antibacterial effect against a facultative upper respiratory tract pathogen by inhibiting bacterial growth, adherence, invasion, and pro-inflammatory activation of upper respiratory tract epithelial cells in vitro, according to the study by Department of Pediatrics, University of Bern, Inselspital(27).
Bromelain, a clinically used pineapple extract and natural product, has reported anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. According to the study by the University of Connecticut, School of Medicine, Bromelain attenuated development of AAD while altering CD4+ to CD8+ T lymphocyte populations. The reduction in AAD outcomes suggests that bromelain may have similar effects in the treatment of human asthma and hypersensitivity disorders(28).
In a randomly assigned 146 volunteer participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily) for 12 weeks, the trial reported 65 occurrences of the common cold in the placebo group compared with 24 in the garlic intervention group (P < 0.001). The number of days of illness was lower in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366)(29).
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(28) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed /16337164