Sunday, 10 November 2013

Phytochemicals - 12 Health Benefits of Hesperidin

Hesperidin is a Flavanones, belonging to the flavonoid in Flavonoids (polyphenols)(C28H34O15), found abundantly in citrus fruits.

Health Benefits
1. Cholesterol lowering
In the investigation of Hesperidin, the most important flavanone of Citrus sp., and its effect of lowering cholesterol found that hesperidin significantly increases HDL and lowers cholesterol, LDL, total lipid and triglyceride plasma levels in normolipidemic rats and in rats with diet- and triton-induced hyperlipidemia, according to "Biological effects of hesperidin, a Citrus flavonoid. (note II): hypolipidemic activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat" by Monforte MT, Trovato A, Kirjavainen S, Forestieri AM, Galati EM, Lo Curto RB.(1)

2. Hypertension
In the evaluation of Long-term administration of hesperidin (HES) or glucosyl hesperidin (GHES), a water-soluble analogue of HES and theirs effects on antihypertensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats found that HES as well as GHES improves serum cholesterol composition and that GHES inhibits hypertrophy in vasculature as well, according to "Glucosyl hesperidin improves serum cholesterol composition and inhibits hypertrophy in vasculature" by Ohtsuki K, Abe A, Mitsuzumi H, Kondo M, Uemura K, Iwasaki Y, Kondo Y.(2)

3. Anti-infection
in the administration of a citrus flavonoid hesperidin (HES) and its effect on infection found that HES markedly suppressed plasma levels of TNF-alpha and high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1), decreased the number of apoptotic cells in livers and normalized the activated states of blood coagulation factors such as prothrombin time and platelet numbers caused by infection, according to "A citrus flavonoid hesperidin suppresses infection-induced endotoxin shock in mice" by Kawaguchi K, Kikuchi S, Hasunuma R, Maruyama H, Yoshikawa T, Kumazawa Y.(3)

4. Anti-inflammatory activity
In the investigation of hesperidin (50 and 100 mg kg-1, s.c.) and its anti-inflammatory activity found that hesperidin obtained from citrus cultures may present a potential therapeutical use as a mild anti-inflammatory agent, being also useful as a precursor of new flavonoids endowed with such activity, according to"Pharmacological evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of a citrus bioflavonoid, hesperidin, and the isoflavonoids, duartin and claussequinone, in rats and mice" by Emim JA, Oliveira AB, Lapa AJ.(4)

5. Sedative and antinociceptive effects
In the observation of hesperidin (hesperetin-7-rhamnoglucoside) and its sedative activity found that a possible beneficial use of the association of hesperidin with benzodiazepines, not only to improve human sedative therapy, but also in the management of pain, according to "Opioid receptors are involved in the sedative and antinociceptive effects of hesperidin as well as in its potentiation with benzodiazepines" by Loscalzo LM, Wasowski C, Paladini AC, Marder M.(5)

6. Nutrigenomic effect
In the analyzing citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), mainly tangeretin, or citrus flavanone glucosides, hesperidin and naringin and theirs effect found that that regular consumption of orange juice for 4 weeks alters leukocyte gene expression to an anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic profile, and hesperidin displays a relevant role in the genomic effect of this beverage, according to "Hesperidin displays relevant role in the nutrigenomic effect of orange juice on blood leukocytes in human volunteers: a randomized controlled cross-over study" by Milenkovic D, Deval C, Dubray C, Mazur A, Morand C.(6)

7. Endothelial cells
In the observation of investigate the different effects of three representative flavonoids-hesperidin, naringin, and resveratrol and their effect on intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) induction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) found that hesperidin, naringin, and resveratrol reduced the HG-induced ICAM-1 expression via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, contributing to the inhibition of monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, according to "Flavonoids inhibit high glucose-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 via the p38 MAPK pathway in human vein endothelial cells" by Kim SW, Kim CE, Kim MH.(7)

8. Plasma concentration
in the examination of hesperidin (Hp) and naringin (Nar), two major citrus flavanones and theirs effect in regulating of bone metabolism found that the higher efficacy of Hp at a lower plasma concentration than naringin, as well as the identification of the major circulating metabolite of hesperidin (hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide) underlines the importance of flavanone bioavailability and metabolism in their biological efficacy and suggests a structure-function relationship in the mechanism of action of the active metabolites, according to "Differential effects of two citrus flavanones on bone quality in senescent male rats in relation to their bioavailability and metabolism" by Habauzit V, Sacco SM, Gil-Izquierdo A, Trzeciakiewicz A, Morand C, Barron D, Pinaud S, Offord E, Horcajada MN.(8)

9. Bone mineral density
In administration of hesperidin, one of the main flavonoid present in oranges and its effect in bone found that Hp consumption resulted in a significant increase in bone mineral density (BMD). Indeed, 6-mo-old HpSH rats had a similar BMD to 9-mo-old nontreated SH adult rats, suggesting an accelerated bone mass gain in the young rats. In contrast, in intact adult rats, Hp did not further increase BMD but did improve their bone strength, according to the study of "Hesperidin inhibits ovariectomized-induced osteopenia and shows differential effects on bone mass and strength in young and adult intact rats" by Horcajada MN, Habauzit V, Trzeciakiewicz A, Morand C, Gil-Izquierdo A, Mardon J, Lebecque P, Davicco MJ, Chee WS, Coxam V, Offord E.(9)

10. Memory dysfunction
In the research of Hesperidin (50 and 100 mg/kg, po) and its effect ischemic reperfusion cerebral injury-induced memory dysfunction found that hesperidin treatment significantly attenuated histopathological alterations compared to control (I/R) animals. L-arginine (100 mg/kg) pretreatment attenuated the protective effect of the lower dose of hesperidin on memory behavior, according to "Hesperidin pre-treatment attenuates NO-mediated cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury and memory dysfunction" by Gaur V, Kumar A.(10)

11. Bleeding bladder varices
In the study of hesperidin 150 mg bid or tid for 30 days in 4 cases and its effect on bleeding bladder varicose veins found that 2 cases that bled the haematuria disappeared and in the 4 cases in the control cystoscopy the varicose veins had disappeared, according to "[Use of flavonoids (hesperidin) in the treatment of bleeding bladder varices]. [Article in Spanish]" by Granados Loarca EA.(11)

12. Diabetes
In the confirmation of hesperidin and cyclodextrin (CD)-clathrated hesperetin, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and theirs hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects found that hesperidin and CD-hesperetin normalized glucose metabolism by altering the activities of glucose-regulating enzymes and reducing the levels of lipids in the serum and liver of the GK rats, according to "Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hesperidin and cyclodextrin-clathrated hesperetin in Goto-Kakizaki rats with type 2 diabetes" by Akiyama S, Katsumata S, Suzuki K, Nakaya Y, Ishimi Y, Uehara M.(12)

13. Etc.

**Overdose of glucoside hesperidin decreased bone density loss, according to the study of "Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, inhibits bone loss and decreases serum and hepatic lipids in ovariectomized mice" by Chiba H, Uehara M, Wu J, Wang X, Masuyama R, Suzuki K, Kanazawa K, Ishimi Y.(a)
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