Monday, 25 November 2013

Osteoarthritis - The Do and do not’s list

Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.
The Do and do not’s list
1. Prevention recurrent injure to damage menisci
The menisci are internal structures that are of central importance for a healthy knee joint; they have a key role in the structural progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and the risk of the disease dramatically increases if they are damaged by injury or degenerative processes. Meniscus damage might be considered a signifying feature of incipient OA in middle-aged and elderly people(26).
2. Take precaution if your occupation is at increased risk of osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most important diseases as it frequently affects the active age group of the population and is the source of considerable loss of working hours and of disability. Compressive, torsional, pulling and angular movements common in certain occupations or sports may result in injuries of soft tissue, thus increasing the development of OA. Consequently, the main task is prevention at the place of work or in sporting activities(27).
3.  Muscle strengthening and aerobic exercises
Muscle strengthening and aerobic exercises are effective in reducing pain and improving physical function in patients with mild to moderate OA of the knee(28).
4. Maintain a healthy weight
In the study to compare MRI-based knee cartilage T2 measurements and focal knee lesions and 36 month changes in these parameters, among knees of normal controls and knees of normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects with risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA), indicated that increased BMI is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration as assessed by both morphological and quantitative MRI measurements(29).
5.  Avoid dehydration
Dr. Xu J, and the research team at the  University of Michigan, in the study of Solid-state NMR spectroscopy provides atomic-level insights into the dehydration of cartilage, showed that the dehydration reduced the mobility of collagen amino acid residues and carbon sugar ring structures in glycosaminoglycans but had no effect on the trans-Xaa-Pro conformation. Equally interestingly, our results demonstrate that the dehydration effects are reversible, and the molecular structure and mobility are restored upon rehydration(30).
6. Avoid intake of inflammatory foods
Loading up on junk foods and fast foods contains high amount of trans fat of that increases the risk of inflammation causes of osteoarthritis (OA). Red meat, eggs, and wheat products all contain high amount of arachidonic acid, too much arachidonic acid in the diet will make your inflammation worse, etc.
7. Eat your fruits and vegetables
Fruits and vegetables contains high amount of nutrients and antioxidant. Researchers found that rheumatoid joint fluid contains significant amounts hydroxyl radical. Its presence suggests a failure of the normal immune defense system within the joint as transferrin has no longer performed its normal function in chemicals binding, leading to inflammation.
Other study suggested that once the inflammatory condition is progressing, free radicals and the chain of free radicals reaction cause radicals occur in high numbers in the affected area, elevating the swelling and promoting degeneration as it becomes a cycle process(31).
8. Replace regular beverage with green tea
IL-1β is a major cytokine driving the inflammatory processes leading to the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and other inflammatory diseases. epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a green tea polyphenol, was found to be effective in reducing IL-1β-induced inflammatory cytokines, TNFα, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and several chemokines from human chondrocytes. The use of green tea polyphenols may be beneficial as a therapeutic addition to biologics that control IL-1β activity by increasing effectiveness and/or reducing dosage(32).
9. Etc.

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