Tuesday, 12 November 2013

Obesity and Colon Cancer

A. Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

B. Colon Cancer or colorectal cancer is defined as a condition of the abnormal proliferation of cells in the large bowel which consist the the colon and rectum, is involved in absorption of water from the small bowel contents and broken down of certain materials in the feces into substances of which some of them to be re absorbed and reused by the body. Colon cancer is relatively very common and slowly growing and progress cancer and in predictable way.

C. How do calculate your BMI index

BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

D. How Obesity associates with Colon Cancer

1. According to the study of "Colon cancer: a civilization disorder" by Watson AJ, Collins PD. (Source from Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. alastair.watson@uea.ac.uk, Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated in abstract that A number of these risk factors are associated with a Western lifestyle and could be considered a product of 'civilization'. Recently, smoking has been recognized as a risk factor. Energy consumption also influences colorectal cancer risk, with obesity increasing risk and exercise reducing risk. However, the strongest contribution to environmental risk for colorectal cancer is dietary. Consumption of fat, alcohol and red meat is associated with an increased risk. Fresh fruit and vegetables and dietary fibre may be protective. Much has been learnt recently about the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer.

2. In a study of "Obesity and familial obesity and risk of cancer" by Hemminki K, Li X, Sundquist J, Sundquist K. (Source from Division of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.k.hemminki@dkfz.de, Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011 Sep;20(5):438-43.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Family history of obesity was associated with formerly unrecognized increased risks of gallbladder and colon cancers and ocular melanoma. Cancer risks in this relatively young obese population differed quantitatively from those found after type 2 diabetes.

3. In an abstract of the study of "Body mass index influences long-term outcome in patients with colorectal cancer" by Shibakita M, Yoshimura H, Tachibana M, Ueda S, Nagasue N. (Source from
Department of Surgery, Kawasaki Hospital, Higashiyama-cho 3-3-1, Hyogo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 652-0042, Japan. shibakita_muneaki@kawasaki-hospital-kobe.or.jp, Hepatogastroenterology. 2010 Jan-Feb;57(97):62-9), posted in PubMed, researchers found that both high and low BMI became independent prognostic factors of disease recurrence in patients with colorectal carcinoma, as low BMI was correlated with tumor progression and high BMI influenced the number of lymph node dissected.

4. in a study of "Body size, weight change, and risk of colon cancer" by Bassett JK, Severi G, English DR, Baglietto L, Krishnan K, Hopper JL, Giles GG. (Source from Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Carlton, Victoria, Australia. julie.bassett@cancervic.org.au, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Nov;19(11):2978-86. Epub 2010 Sep 24.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Adult weight change was positively associated with colon cancer risk for men (HR, 1.11 per 5-kg increment; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20), but not women (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.94-1.07). Men who gained ≥20 kg from age 18 had an increased risk of colon cancer compared with men whose weight was stable (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.94-2.31) and concluded that
Weight gain during adult life increases men's risk of colon cancer.

5. Etc.

E. Treatments of Obesity and Colon Cancer
1. according to the abstract of the study of " Colorectal cancer screening and prevention in women" by Krishnan S, Wolf JL. (Source from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA, Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2011 Mar;7(2):213-26), posted in PubMed, researchers stated that new studies have shown other factors such as obesity and smoking to increase the risk of CRC in women. This article highlights issues unique to women with regards to CRC and outlines special considerations for determining screening intervals in women, identifies factors that make screening more difficult in women, and reviews studies that identify preventative strategies which, together with screening, may reduce the burden of CRC.

2. According to the study of "Diet-induced weight loss reduces colorectal inflammation: implications for colorectal carcinogenesis" by Pendyala S, Neff LM, Suárez-Fariñas M, Holt PR. (Source from Clinical and Translational Science Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA., Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb;93(2):234-42. Epub 2010 Dec 8.), posted in PubMed, researchers found that Our data show that diet-induced weight loss in obese individuals reduces colorectal inflammation and greatly modulates inflammatory and cancer-related gene pathways. These data imply that obesity is accompanied by inflammation in the colorectal mucosa and that diet-induced weight loss reduces this inflammatory state and may thereby lower CRC risk.

3. According to the study of "Diet and colorectal cancer: implications for the obese and devotees of the Atkins diet" by Fleming ME, Sales KM, Winslet MC. (Source from University Department of Surgery, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK, Colorectal Dis. 2005 Mar;7(2):128-32.), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Obesity has been demonstrated to be a major factor in the increase in CRC although links to changes in diet are more tenuous. Published studies on diet suggest the Atkins diet may help reduce rather than increase the risk of CRC.

4. Etc.
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