Monday, 25 November 2013

Musculo-Skeletal Disorders – Osteoarthritis - The Symptoms

I. Osteoarthritis (OA), a form of arthritis, is defined as a condition of
as a result of aging causes of wear and tear on a joint, affecting over 25 million people in the United States in alone.
II. Symptoms 
Symptoms of  osteoarthritis is aching pain, stiffness, or difficulty moving the joint may develop in one or more joints. The pain usually gets worse in change of weather at night and in the advanced of the diseases the pain can occur even at rest.
1. Pain in joints of the hand
Most commonly affected joints of the hand in osteoarthritis include the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb (CMC 1) and the distal (DIP) and proximal (PIP) interphalangeal joints. Ageing, female gender, genotype, heavy work causing pressure on the hands, and injuries predispose to osteoarthritis in the hand. The pain is likely to be due to secondary synovitis caused by molecules released from the joint cartilage(3).
2. Knee and Hip
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip is among the most frequent and debilitating arthritic conditionsosteoarthritis. Key features of the pathological joint changes in OA include: cartilage destruction by pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases and prostaglandins, which promote a catabolic environment; subchondral bone remodelling and resorption; hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes; neovascularisation of synovial tissue; and focal calcification of joint cartilage(4).
3. Spine 
Vertebral deformity, in particular wedging, of the thoracic spine is not exclusively characteristic for osteoporosis and that certain vertebral deformities develop by mechanisms other than fracture. Osteoporotic fracture of the thoracic spine is characterized by an exaggerated reduction of the midheight to posterior height in addition to reduction of the anterior to posterior height. Osteoarthritis affecting the low back can lead to chronic low back pain (lumbago) and degenerative disc disease (spondylosis).
Other researchers indicated that Postmenopausal women with lumbar spine disc degeneration are characterized by increased CII degradation. The contribution of lumbar spine disc space narrowing (DSN) to type II collagen (CII) degradation was similar to, and independent of, the contribution of radiologic knee OA or clinical hand OA. Lumbar spine disc degeneration in elderly patients should be assessed when analyzing levels of C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of CII (CTX-II) in studies of knee, hip, and hand OA(5).

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