Monday, 25 November 2013

Musculo-Skeletal Disorders -Phytochemicals and Gout

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints. A shoulder disorder was found in 27% of subjects, rheumatoid arthritis in 1% and osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand, hip, and knee in five, seven, and 18% of subjects, respectively. Disability was frequent: a walking distance of < 500 m was found in 60% and ADL dependency in 40% of the group. Factors related to one or both of these disability measures included female gender, hip and knee OA, impaired vision, cognitive impairment and neurological disease(1a).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2a)
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia
I. Gout mostly effected one joint is defined as a acute and recurrent condition of arthritis as a result of uric acid builds up in blood cause of joint inflammation.
V. Prevention
B. Phytochemicals to prevent Gout
1. Quercetin and Rutin
Dr. Zhu JX and research team at the School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University found that the effects of quercetin and rutin on serum urate levels in hyperuricemic mice induced by oxonate and the inhibition of enzyme activities in mouse liver are discussed in relation to their absorption and metabolism, and their potential application to treat gout and hyperuricemia(15).
2. Morin
Morin (3,5,7,2′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone) a phytochemical found in the twigs of Morus alba L. documented in traditional Chinese medicinal literature to treat conditions akin to gout, was demonstrated to exert potent inhibitory action on urate uptake in rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles, indicating that this compound acts on the kidney to inhibit urate reabsorption(16).
3. Other phytichemicals
In the study of 15 flavonoids (quercetin, morin, myricetin, kaempferol, icariin, apigenin, luteolin, baicalin, silibinin, naringenin, formonoetin, genistein, puerarin, daidzin and naringin dihydrochalcone) selected to investigate for their hypouricemic action in mice, found that Oral administration of quercetin, morin, myricetin, kaempferol, apigenin and puerarin at 50 and 100 mg/kg for 3 d was able to elicit hypouricemic actions in hyperuricemic mice induced by potassium oxonate. Luteolin, formonoetin and naringenin showed the significant effects only at 100 mg/kg. Quercetin, puerarin, myricetin, morin and kaempferol significantly reduced liver uric acid level in hyperuricemic animals. In addition, quercetin, morin, myricetin, kaempferol and puerarin exhibited significant inhibition on the liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities(17).
4. Etc.
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