Saturday, 2 November 2013

Muscae Volitantes (Floater)

I. Muscae volitantes or Floater is defined as a condition of pathol moving black specks or threads seen before the eyes, as results of opaque fragments floating in the vitreous humour or a lens defect due to degeneration of the vitreous humour.  Floater as it suspends in the vitreous humour, it tends to drift  and follows the rapid motions of the eye as a result of damage of the eye that causes material to enter the vitreous humour.

II. Symptoms
1. Seeing a spot or spots, other shapes such as black or gray dots, squiggly lines, threadlike strands, ring shaped, etc. before the eyes    
2.  Movement of the spots or shapes that parallels eye movement.
3. Etc.

III. Causes and risk factors
A, Causes
There are many causes of floater, including
1.  Eyes diseases
Eye diseases can cause damage to the eye of that can lead to muscae volitantes.
2. Vitreous cyst
Vitreous cyst is associated to the cause of floater, although it is rare. The etiology has been theorized to be both congenital and acquired. Acquired cysts may be due to trauma or other forms of intraocular inflammation. Pigmented cysts are believed to originate from the pars ciliaris and nonpigmented cysts are likely to be derived from the remnants of the hyaloidal artery system. The appearances of the cysts are striking and are often seen as clear spherical bodies in the vitreous with interesting interlacing surface patterns. The cysts are benign and are of little significance, except when they encroach on the visual axis and produce visual disturbances (usually floater symptoms)(1).

3.  Vitreous syneresis
vitreous normally will undergo liquefaction and changed from jellylike material to fluid like material in a process called syneresis of vitreous and this will cause the collage fibers within the vitreous to form strands. With each eye movements, those strands will also move, causing eye floaters(2).

4. Posterior vitreous detachments (PVD)
Posterior vitreous detachments can cause uscae volitantes. It is a condition of the eye in which the vitreous humor separates from the retina due to aging as the condition is common in older adults and over 75% of those over the age of 65 develop it(3).

5. Retinal detachment
Retinal detachment associated to the causes of floater, is a eye disorder in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue(4) and affected mostly in middle-aged or older population.

6. Hyaloid remnant
A rare condition in which there remain some parts of the hyaloid artery. Posteriorly there may be a vascular loop or the thread of an obliterated vessel running forward from the optic disc and floating freely in the vitreous. Anteriorly there may be some fibrous remnants attached to the posterior lens capsule and others sometimes floating in the vitreous. The anterior attachment of the hyaloid artery to the lens may also remain throughout life as a black dot, called Mittendorf's dot, and can be seen within the pupil by direct ophthalmoscopy (it appears as a white dot with the biomicroscope). There is rarely any visual interference although patients may sometimes report seeing muscae volitantes(5).

7.  Other causes of Muscae volitantes
a. Patient with oily tears and inpissated meibomian glands may also accumulate debris within the tear layer, which can be reported as floaters.
b. Patients with ocular allergies may also be prime candidates for this phenomenon, since the eye produces excess mucus in order to soothe the eye from the allergic assault.
c. Vitreous haemorrhage. A PVD that encounters an area of vitreoretinal adhesion can cause a tractional tear in the retina. If a retinal blood vessel is involved, subsequent leakage into the vitreous cavity and retrohyaloid space will occur.
d. A relatively common vitreous anomaly that occasionally causes floaters is asteroid hyalosis. Asteroid bodies are calcium soaps that attach to the vitreous framework(6).

8. Etc.

B, Risk factors
1. Aging
People who are over age of 50 are at the increased risk of  Muscae volitantes as a result of Posterior vitreous detachments (PVD).

2. Myopia
People who are with Myopia are also in the higher risk to develop Muscae volitantes as a result of eye strain and tearing.

3. Eye damage
Damage to the eye due to what ever reason, including punch in the eye can cause floater.

4. Eye surgery
Eye surgery patients are at increased risk to develop floater, recently had eye surgery, laser eye surgery, etc.

5. Diabetes
If you are diabetic, you are at higher risk to develop floater and other eye diseases such as glaucoma and cataracts.

6. Etc.

IV. Diagnosis
If you are experience floater as you you can see them if look at the blue sky or a white wall. Your Ophthalmologists can diagnose floaters by the use of an ophthalmoscope or slit lamp

V. Preventions
The aim of prevention of floater is to enhance the immune function to fight inflammation causes and strengthen the eye connective tissues and blood circulation to prevent leaking causes of floater.
A. Diet to prevent floater
1. Pineapple 
a. Connective tissues
In the study to investigate pineapple plant which contains the enzyme bromelain acclaimed to reduce pain and swellings following acute muscle injurie showed that the flesh and bark extract induced a proliferation of tenoblasts which however was not significantly different from that of the untreated tendon while the leaves and core extracts reduced the population of the tenocytes. The flesh extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the MDA level while the leaves and core extract significantly (p < 0.001) increased it. The bark extract had no significant impact on the MDA level compared with the untreated tendon(7).
b.  Immune function
Bromelain also increases the immune function in fighting the invasion of foreign substances such as bacteria and virus, thus decreasing the risk of inflammation and infection according to the study of "Bromelain treatment reduces CD25 expression on activated CD4+ T cells in vitro" by Secor ER Jr, Singh A, Guernsey LA, McNamara JT, Zhan L, Maulik N, Thrall RS., posted in PubMed(8)
c. Small blood vessel wall protectionThe high amount of vitamin C also increase the flexibility of small vessel, thus decreasing the risk of internal bleeding, heart diseases and stroke, according to the study of "Effects of benfluorex-vitamin C supplementation on cutaneous capillaries of diabetic rats" by Sari Kiliçaslan SM, Ozer C., posted in PubMed(9)
d. Manganese
Manganese beside is a mineral essential for energy production and metabolism of foods, it also helps to improve immune-system functioning that reduces the risk of inflammation, according to the study of "The effects of 3, 4 or 5 amino salicylic acids on manganese-induced neuronal death: ER stress and mitochondrial complexes" by Yoon H, Lee GH, Kim DS, Kim KW, Kim HR, Chae HJ(10) 
2. Ginger
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) or ginger root is the genus Zingiber, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, native to Tamil. It has been used in traditional and Chinese medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc.
a.  Anti-Inflammatory effects
In the classification of the effect of ginger extract on the expression of NFκB and TNF-α in liver cancer-induced rats found that ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFκB and TNF-α in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFκB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α, according to "Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale) has Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Effects on Ethionine-Induced Hepatoma Rats" by Shafina Hanim Mohd Habib,I Suzana Makpol, Noor Aini Abdul Hamid, Srijit Das, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, and Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof 11)
b. Delay of diabetic cataract
In the demonstration of antiglycating activity and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) found that ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataract in rats mainly through its antiglycating potential and to a lesser extent by inhibition of the polyol pathway. Thus, ingredients of dietary sources, such as ginger, may be explored for the prevention or delay of diabetic complications, according to "Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats" by Megha Saraswat, Palla Suryanarayana, Paduru Yadagiri Reddy, Madhoosudan A. Patil, Nagalla Balakrishna, and Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy(12)
c, GINGER for EYE disorders: Taking Ginger will increase blood circulation so that more nutrition can reach your eye.(13)
3. Brussels sprouts
Brussels sprout is a spcies of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea), belong to the family of Brassicaceae and was cultivated since ancient Rome.
a. Antioxidants
In the evaluation of consumption of the sprouts and its antioxidant effects found that Serum vitamin C levels were increased by 37% after sprout consumption but no correlations were seen between prevention of DNA-damage and individual alterations of the vitamin levels. Our study shows for the first time that sprout consumption leads to inhibition of sulfotransferases in humans and to protection against PhIP and oxidative DNA-damage, according to "Consumption of Brussels sprouts protects peripheral human lymphocytes against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and oxidative DNA-damage: results of a controlled human intervention trial"by Hoelzl C, Glatt H, Meinl W, Sontag G, Haidinger G, Kundi M, Simic T, Chakraborty A, Bichler J, Ferk F, Angelis K, Nersesyan A, Knasmüller S.(14)
b. Type 2 diabetes
In the determination of young broccoli sprouts improve oxidative stress status in diabetic condition found that 63 patients in three groups were included in the analysis: 10 g/d BSP (n=21), 5 g/d (n=22) and placebo (n=20). After 4 weeks, consumption of BSP resulted in significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) (P=0.001 for treatment effect), oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.03 for treatment effect), OSI (P=0.001 for treatment effect) and significant increase in Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P=0.001 for treatment effect), according to "Broccoli sprouts reduce oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial" by Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Hosseinpanah F, Hedayati M, Hosseinpour-Niazi S, Azizi F.(15)
c. Vitamin C
In the study to assess, whether or not, vitamin C, required during the collagen synthesis, would influence the Achilles tendon healing in a healthy rat model, showed that high-dose vitamin C supplementation once for every 2 days has stimulating effects on the Achilles tendon healing because of early angiogenesis and increased collagen synthesis in a healthy rat model. Further studies are needed to make clear the mentioned encouraging effects of the vitamin C on the Achilles tendon healing(16).
4. Strawberries
Strawberries is a genius of Fragaria × ananassa belongs to the family Roseaceae. They have been grown all over the world with suitable climate for commercial profits and for health benefits.
a. Antioxidant enzymes
In the identification of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals of strawberry and their effects on gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease found that Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species, according to "Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase" by Alvarez-Suarez JM, Dekanski D, Ristić S, Radonjić NV, Petronijević ND, Giampieri F, Astolfi P, González-Paramás AM, Santos-Buelga C, Tulipani S, Quiles JL, Mezzetti B, Battino M.(17)
b. Anti inflammationIn the observation of Ethanolic extract of Fragaria vesca (EFFV) of Fragaria vesca L. and its effect on Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (chronic recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)) found that EFFV at 500 mg/kg showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced IBD, which may be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, according to "Effect of fruit extract of Fragaria vesca L. on experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in albino rats" by Kanodia L, Borgohain M, Das S.(18)
c. Human health
In the
review and update of the current knowledge on the potential impact of strawberry on human health, found that the mechanisms responsible for the potential health-promoting effects of strawberry may not be necessarily searched in the activity of phytochemicals. Particularly, a greater interest should be addressed to show whether a prolonged strawberry consumption may effectively improve the folate status and reduce the incidence of folate-related pathological conditions. Furthermore, the hypouricaemic effects of cherries need to be evaluated also in respect to strawberry intake, and the mechanisms of actions and anti-gout potentialities need to be studied in detail. Future investigations involving human trials should be aimed at following these underestimated scientific tracks, according to "Impact of strawberries on human health: insight into marginally discussed bioactive compounds for the Mediterranean diet" by Tulipani S, Mezzetti B, Battino M.(19)
5. Etc.  
B.. Antioxidants to prevent floater(20)
1. Antioxidant enzymes 
a. Super oxide dismutase (both Cu-Zn and Mn)
Super oxide dismutase is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide depending on the metal cofactor such as both Cu-Zn and Mn.
b. Glutathione peroxidase
The function of glutathione peroxidase is to protect the organism from oxidative damage by reducing lipid hydroperoxides, an oxidation of lipid cell membranes which can easily break and form free radicals of the form RO and converting free hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.

c. Glutathione reductase
Glutathione reductase, an enzyme reduces pair of sulfur atoms glutathione to the a organosulfur compound form of antioxidant (consisting of three amino acids joined by peptide bonds) which helps to prevent damage of important cellular components caused by free radicals and peroxides.
d. Etc.
2. Metals binding proteins(21)
a. Ceruloplasmin
Ceruloplasmin, the major copper-carrying protein in the blood plays a role in iron metabolism. It prevents the oxidation that leads to the forming of oxidation from Fe2+ (ferrous iron) into Fe3+ (ferric iron) by exhibiting a copper-dependent oxidase activity, causing mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene cause of iron overload in the brain, liver, pancreas, and retina.

b. Ferritin
Ferritin, the protein produced by almost all living organisms, acts as a component to fight against iron deficiency and iron overload, keep in a soluble and non-toxic form and transport it to the body needs, including organs. It enhances the immune system in the presence of an infection or cancer and prevent the infectious agent attempts to bind iron to become free radicals by migrating from the plasma to within cells.
c. Etc.

3. Common Free Radical Scavengers 
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurs in the form retinol and is best known for its function in maintaining the health of cell membrane, hair, skin, bone, teeth and eyes. It also plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs; prevents its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation; boosts immune system in controlling of free radicals; prevents oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.

b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside plays an important role in formation and maintenance of body tissues, it as an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, it helps to fight against forming of free radicals. By enhancing the immune system, it promotes against the microbial and viral and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation.
Vitamin C also is a scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation.

c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.

d. Vitamin D
Reseacher found that vitamin D, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant, with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.

e. Etc.

 C. Phytochemicals to prevent floater
1. Curcumin is a phytochemical found abundant in the plant. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red.
a Anti-inflammatory agent
According to the study of evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) in patients with postoperative inflammation. by Satoskar RR, Shah SJ, Shenoy SG., poated in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers wrote that In this model of postoperative inflammation, the anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin (diferuloyl methane) was investigated in comparison with phenylbutazone and placebo. Phenylbutazone and curcumin produced a better anti-inflammatory response than placebo.

b. Antioxidants
In a study of `Protective Role of Curcumin Against Oxidative Stress,Immunosuppressive and Cytotoxic Effects of Lead Exposure` by Mahmoud El-sherbiny, Azza Araffa, Mona Mantawy and Hany M. Hassan (Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre - Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Immunology Department, Animal Reproduction Research Institute (ARRI), Giza, Egypt), posted in World Applied Sciences Journal 12 (10): 1832-1838, 2011, researchers found that
ground, curcumin's benefits on tumorigenesis are thought to be mediated by its antiinflammatory activity; however, these effects have not been well characterized in a mouse model of colon cancer. Briefly, curcumin is efficacious for chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats and the action mechanism may be associated with its decreasing effect on the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-alpha in the blood and tissues. Curcumin has protective effect on DNA of pulmonary cells. There was direct evidence for an involvement of curcumin in reducing arsenic and lead induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice by virtue of its antioxidant potential and trapping of free radicals. The current investigation concluded that curcumin has protective role against cytotoxic, immunosuppressive , oxidative and immunosuppressive profile that perform due to lead acetate exposure.
c. Cellular Processing
According to the research of `Evidence against the rescue of defective DeltaF508-CFTR cellular processing by curcumin in cell culture and mouse models.`by Song Y, Sonawane ND, Salinas D, Qian L, Pedemonte N, Galietta LJ, Verkman AS. (Source from Department of Medicine and Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. Copyright 2004 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.) posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that assay of serum curcumin by ethyl acetate extraction followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry indicated a maximum serum concentration of 60 nm, well below that of 5-15 microm, where cellular effects by sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump inhibition are proposed to occur. Our results do not support further evaluation of curcumin for cystic fibrosis therapy.
2. Theaflavin-3-gallate, a theaflavin derivative, is phytochemicals of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found abundantly in black tea.
a. Antioxidant capacities
In the comparison of TF derivatives (theaflavin (TF(1)), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF(2)A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF(2)B), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF(3))) in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro, indicated that positive antioxidant capacities of TF(2)B on singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage in vitro were found, according to "Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of four main theaflavin derivatives through chemiluminescence and DNA damage analyses" by Wu YY, Li W, Xu Y, Jin EH, Tu YY.(22)
b. Anti inflammation
found that a single topical application of equimolar of black tea constituents (TF, theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate) strongly inhibited TPA-induced edema of mouse ears. Application of TFs mixture to mouse ears 20 min prior to each TPA application once a day for 4 days inhibited TPA-induced persistent inflammation, as well as TPA-induced increase in IL-1beta and IL-6 protein levels. TFs also inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism via both cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase pathways, according to "Inhibitory effects of black tea theaflavin derivatives on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and arachidonic acid metabolism in mouse ears" by Huang MT, Liu Y, Ramji D, Lo CY, Ghai G, Dushenkov S, Ho CT.(23)
3. Gingerole, is also known as gingerol, a phytochemical of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found in fresh ginger. and in variety of other plants. The herb has been used to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, motion sickness, rheumatoid arthritis, relieve migraine, etc.
In the investigation of the effectiveness of chemical constituents of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae)in treating oxidative stress found that compounds [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol of the herb scavenges of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picyrlhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, inhibitsof N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), lipopolysaccharide induced nitrite and prostaglandin E(2) production in RAW 264.7 cells, according to the study of "Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol" by Dugasani S, Pichika MR, Nadarajah VD, Balijepalli MK, Tandra S, Korlakunta JN(24)
4. Epigallocatechin, including catechins, is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in green tea, St John wort, black Tea, carob flour, Fuji apples, etc.
a. Cholesterol
In the examination of the influence of green tea extract, epicatechin (EC), epicatechin galate (ECG) as well as epigallocatechin galate (EGCG) on oxidative modifications of LDL of human blood serum, found that Catechins and green tea abilities to protect lipophilic antioxidant--alpha-tocopherol against oxidation have been also examined. The results reveal that peroxidation of LDL is markedly prevented by green tea extract and in a slightly weaker way by catechins (EGCG in particular), which is manifested by a decrease in concentration of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, MDA, dityrosine and by an increase in tryptophan content, according to "The comparison of effect of catechins and green tea extract on oxidative modification of LDL in vitro" by Ostrowska J, Skrzydlewska E.(25)

b. Anti diabetes
In the observation of the effect of tea catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicatechin (EC)) on markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and membrane -SH group) in erythrocytes from type 2 diabetics, found that tea catechins protect erythrocytes from t-BHP-induced oxidative stress, the effect being more pronounced in diabetic erythrocytes. The relative effectiveness of individual catechins are in the order of EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC. 7. We hypothesise that a higher intake of catechin-rich food by diabetic patients may provide some protection against the development of long-term complications of diabetes, according to "Protective role of tea catechins against oxidation-induced damage of type 2 diabetic erythrocytes" by Rizvi SI, Zaid MA, Anis R, Mishra N.(26)

c. Antioxidants
In the evaluation of the effects of the main polyphenolic components extracted from green tea leaves, i.e. (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and gallic acid (GA), against free radical initiated peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL), found that The antioxidative action of the green tea polyphenols includes trapping the initiating and/or propagating peroxyl radicals with the activity sequence EC>EGCG>ECG>EGC>GA for the AAPH initiated peroxidation, and reducing the alpha-tocopheroxyl radical to regenerate alpha-tocopherol with the activity sequence of ECG>EC>EGCG>EGC>GA and ECG>EGCG>GA>EC>EGC for the AAPH-initiated and BP-photosensitized peroxidations respectively, according to "Antioxidative effects of green tea polyphenols on free radical initiated and photosensitized peroxidation of human low density lipoprotein" by Liu Z, Ma LP, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu ZL.(27)
5. Etc.
VI. Treatments
A. In conventional medicine perspective
Treatment is not necessary, if the diagnosis indicated that the floater is harmless and will do causes nay damage to the eye vision, but in severe case, the following may be recommended
1. Vitrectomy
In the study to  to evaluate the role of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in patients with persistent vitreous floaters (VF) in phakic (56.7 %) or pseudophakic (43.3 %) eyes, Dr. Roth M, and the research team at the Universitätsspital Bern, showed that PPV to be a safe and effective primary treatment for visually disturbing VF. In spite of the small number of cases with a lower PVA (5 eyes/16.7 %), which in the most severe case corresponded to a reduction of VA from 1.0 to 0.6 due to a nuclear sclerosis of the lens, all patients were satisfied. As vitreoretinal complications may occur, a critical patient selection and a careful preoperative assessment of specific risks of vitrectomy are mandatory(28).
2. Laser vitreolysis
Dr. Y M Delaney and the research team at The Department of Ophthalmology Stoke Mandeville Hospital Aylesbury Buckinghamshire, in the study of Nd:YAG vitreolysis and pars plana vitrectomy: surgical treatment for vitreous floaters, indicated that Patients’ symptoms from vitreous floaters are often underestimated resulting in no intervention. This paper shows Nd:YAG vitreolysis to be a safe but only moderately effective primary treatment conferring clinical benefit in one third of patients. Pars plana vitrectomy, while offering superior results, should be reserved for patients who remain markedly symptomatic following vitreolysis, until future studies further clarify its role in the treatment of patients with floaters and posterior vitreous detachment(29). 
There is no need to undergo any eye floaters treatment with respect to the fact that the diagnose is utterly harmless and does not have any influence on worsening of the vision or sight damage. Most of the patients get used to this problem after some time and they begin to ignore it and it ceases to bother them or possibly they perceive it only when they increase the level of concentration for example on some white wall.
The formation of eye floaters depends on the natural changes in the vitreous body and is not caused by any behavior of the patient: neither reading nor working on the computer.
Read more about Eye floaters - Muscae volitantes > Causes and treatment of floaters in the eye by www.about-vision.c
There is no need to undergo any eye floaters treatment with respect to the fact that the diagnose is utterly harmless and does not have any influence on worsening of the vision or sight damage. Most of the patients get used to this problem after some time and they begin to ignore it and it ceases to bother them or possibly they perceive it only when they increase the level of concentration for example on some white wall.
The formation of eye floaters depends on the natural changes in the vitreous body and is not caused by any behavior of the patient: neither reading nor working on the computer.
Read more about Eye floaters - Muscae volitantes > Causes and treatment of floaters in the eye by B. In Herbal medicine perspective
The aim of the treatment is to enhance the repaired connective tissues, diabetic complication cause of floater and improve circulation and protect the capillaries from broken off.
1. Repaired connective tissues
Loss of skin elasticity is one of the main problems of ageing. This is a mechanical property influenced by elastin, a protein in the dermis which, together with collagen and glycosaminoglycans, makes up the connective tissue. In the study to investigate the effects of lady's thistle (Silybum marianum GAERTN), alchemilla or yarrow (Alchemilla vulgaris L.), horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) as well as germinated seeds (Glycine soja Siebold and Zucc., Triticum vulgare Vilars, Medicago sativa L., Raphanus sativus L.), found that t the plant complex presents non-competitive inhibition in the order of 41.0% against PPE and 50.0% against HLE. An in vivo test was made alongside the in vitro test using an SEM 474 Cutometer (Courage & Khazaka) to study the elasticity of the skin, and positive effects were obtained when applying a cosmetic formulation containing 5% of the plant complex. Image analysis of duplicates of the cutaneous surface, before and after treatment began with a product containing 5% of plant complex and showed that wrinkles were decreased by 36.7%(30).

 2. Diabetic complicationsa.
Dandelion water extract (DWE), an herbal medication, may exert an effect on the activity and mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Dr. Cho SY and research team at Yeungnam University suggested that a DWE supplement can improve the lipid metabolism and is beneficial in preventing diabetic complications from lipid peroxidation and free radicals in diabetic rats(31).

3. Circulation enhancers 
a. GINGER for EYE disorders: Taking Ginger will increase blood circulation so that more nutrition can reach your eye(32).
b. Garlic for VARICOSE VEINS. Garlic helps to keep your blood from clumping or becoming too sticky, helping your blood move through your blood vessels and reduces the risk of blood clots. One clove a day should do the trick. You can also take garlic capsules. CAUTION: Medication and Garlic could lead to uncontrolled bleeding and spell HEMORRHAGIC STROKES if it occurs in your brain. To avoid this, take caution against taking standardized garlic extract. Experts suggest eating no more than one clove of garlic a day(33). 
4. Prevent Eye diseases
 Bilberry has been best known for its function in enhancing vision health, according to the study of "Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: cataracts and glaucoma" by Head KA., posted in PubMed(4), researcher indicated that B vitamin riboflavin appears to play an essential role as a precursor to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a co-factor for glutathione reductase activity. Other nutrients and botanicals, which may benefit cataract patients or help prevent cataracts, include pantethine, folic acid, melatonin, and bilberry(34)

5. Other suggested dandelion, milk thistle, Ginkgo Biloba, etc.
C. In traditional Chinese medicine perspective(35)
in theEnglish-Chinese Encyclopedia of Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine (2), there is a short section on diseases of the vitreous. The clinical manifestations are said to range from mild cases with black shadows floating up and down like flying flies (but no other change in vision) to severe cases, where the eyes seem to be covered by a membrane. There are three categories of causation listed: 
1.  Accumulation and steaming up of damp-heat and attack of turbid qi
a. This corresponds to the disorder of the gallbladder described above. 
b. A recommended formula is modified San ren Tang (Three Seed Decoction), which have a function to clear damp-heat. Ingredients includes
b.1. Xing Ren (Apricot Seed or Kernel)
b.2. Bai Dou Kou (Round Cardamom Fruit)
b.3. Hou Po (Magnolia Bark)
b.4. Ban Xia (Pinellia Rhizome)
b.5. Yi Yi Ren (Seeds of Job's Tears)
b.6. Tong Cao (Rice Paper Pith, Tetrapanax)
b.7. Dan Zhu Ye (Lophatherum Stem and Leaves)
b.8.Hua Shi (Talcum)

2. Stagnation of liver qi, resulting in blood stasis and extravasation of blood
a. This corresponds to the leakage of blood into the vitreous cavity, perhaps as a result of retinitis. 
b. A recommended formula is modified Jiawei Xiaoyao San (Bupleurum and Peony Formula.
b.1.Radix Bupleuri Chinensis (Chai hu)
b.2. Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui)
b.3. Radix Paeoniae Lactiflorae (Bai shao)
b.4. Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae  (Bai zhu)
b.5. Sclerotium Poriae Cocos  (Fu ling)
b.6. Radix Glycyrrhizae Uralensis (Gan cao)
b.7. Cortex Moutan Radicis (Paeonia Suffruticosa) (Mu dan pi)
b.8. Fructus Gardeniae Jasminoidis (Zhi zi)
b.9. Herba Menthae Haplocalycis (Bo he)   

3. Deficiency of kidney and liver, resulting in flaring up of deficiency fire
a. This corresponds to the weakness of the kidney water, and associated heat that causes drying of the vitreous. 
b.  The recommended formula is a modified Zhibai Dihuang Tang (Anemarrhena, Phellodendron, and Rehmannia Formula),. Ingredients include
b.1. Radix Rehmanniae Preparata  (Shu Di Huang)
b.2. Fructus Corni Officinalis (Shan Zhu Yu)
b.3. Cortex Moutan Radicis (Paeonia Suffruticosa) (Mu Dan Pi)
b.4. Rhizoma Dioscoreae Oppositae  (Shan Yao)
b.5. Sclerotium Poriae Cocos (Fu Ling)
b.6. Rhizoma Alismatis Orientalis (Ze Xie)
b.7. Rhizoma Anemarrhenae Asphodeloidis (Zhi Mu)
b.8. Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis  (Huang Bo)   


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