Tuesday, 12 November 2013

Multiple Myeloma (Myeloma)

Multiple myeloma (Myeloma) is a type of cancer originated from plasma cells in the bone marrow. It is a type of white blood cell normally responsible for the production of antibodies to protect our body against infection with some characteristics

1. Bone pain
Abnormal growth of plasma cell can cause collapse of the bone
2. Infection
Due to over crowd of abnormal plasma cells reduces the functions white blood cells produced by the bone marrow, leading to weakened immune system. Most common infection found to be
pneumonias and pyelonephritis.
3. Anemia
As a result of malignant plasma cells has interfering with normal production of red blood cells
4. Bleeding
Due to lower production of platelet
5. Renal failure
Abnormal plasma cells can also effect the function of kidney in getting rid of waste, causing urea and creatinine accumulated in the bloodstream
6. Neurological symptoms
Due to hypercalcemia, as a result of the breakdown of bone cause of the release of calcium into the blood stream
a. Headache
b. Confusion
c. Fatigue
d. Radicular pain,
e. Loss of bowel or bladder control
7. Back pain
As a result of the small degree of collapse of the spine.

Causes of risk factors
1. Age
If you are between 50 and 70 years old you are at higher risk to develop Multiple Myeloma.
2. Gender
Men are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than women
3. Race
The cancer tends to affects blacks more often than whites
4. Previous multiple myeloma
People who previously had been treated with multiple myeloma are at higher risk to develop it again.
5. Exposed to certain chemicals
Increased risk of multiple myeloma if you are exposed to certain chemicals such as occupation.
6. Family history
If a direct member of the family has multiple myrloma, risk of the disease increased
7. Radiation
Increased risk of the cancer if you are exposed to radiation, such as radiation exposure of nuclear accident.
8. Etc.

The Grades of multiple myeloma are depending to the tendency of spreading. Low grade cancers usually grow more slowly and are less likely to spread while high grade cancer indicates otherwise.

Stages of the multiple myeloma may be classified according to the monoclonal protein or M protein or M band. High levels indicate that many myeloma cells are present but they also can indicate of kidney damage that occurs in some people with multiple myeloma.

Diagnosis and tests
After family history and careful physical examination, the first two tests that your doctor orders are
1. Blood and urine test
The blood and urine test are to determine the presence of the M band, the higher the levels indicates more advance of the disease. Although the presence of the M band in blood sample can be caused by other diseases, M band found in the urine is rare to others.

2. Bone marrow biopsy
The test usually is done in your doctor or in hospital as a outpatient by using a thin, tube-like needle inserted into the hip to withdraw a small sample from bone marrow. The sample will be view under microscopy by a pathologist to look for any abnormality of Multiple Myeloma.

3. X ray
X ray should be helpful to examine any damage of the bone as they have been dissolved by the cancerous cells.

4. Etc.

A. How to prevent
1. Radiation and Toxic chemicals
Avoid directed contact with radiation or any toxic chemicals, such as the toxic chemicals benzene, pesticide. If not possible due to occupation, please take all pre-cautious.
2. Family history and previous multiple myeloma
Take a more active approach in examination by seeing your doctor more often, if one of your direct family had multiple myeloma in the past.
B. With Diet
1. Cruciferous Vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, etc. beside contain high amount of antioxidants, but also phytonutrients that have been shown to help prevent the onset and halt the progression of certain cancers.

2. Soy
In laboratory studies, saponins have shown the ability to inhibit the reproduction of cancer cells and slow the growth of tumors in several different tissues.

3. Tomato
Many studies showed that antioxidant lycopene in tomato inhibits cancer cell growth and exhibit apoptosis, causing cell death.

4. Garlic
An analysis of several case-controlled studies in Europe suggests an inverse association between garlic consumption and risk of common cancers.

5. Green-yellow and green leafy vegetables
In a population-based prospective study of Japanese individuals, researchers found that consumption of vegetables, green-yellow and green leafy vegetables was inversely associated with the risk of liver cancer. British Journal Cancer. 200. In fact, traditional Chinese medicine view the green color vegetables are liver tonification.

6. Etc.

C. With nutritional supplements
1. Antioxidants
Antioxidants such free radical scavengers vitamin A, C, E enhance the immune system against the forming of free radicals and prevent the alternation of cell DNA cause of abnormal cell growth. For more information of how antioxidants help to treat cancer, click here

2. Quercetin
Quercetin is a type of phytochemical, also known as a flavonoid. In cell culture or animal studies, researchers found that quercetin has activity against some types of cancer cells and suggested it may be potential benefits in treating cancer.

2. Flavonoids
In a study of flavonoids intake in human, The researchers found that flavonoids’ anticancer property has been proposed to exist via prevention of the formation of cancer-causing metabolites, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and stimulation of programmed tumor cell self-destruction (apoptosis).

3. Beta Carotene
In some laboratory, animal, and human studies, researchers found that vitamin A, certain retinoids may also inhibit cancer development.

4. Selenium
In a study of Selenium-induced Cytotoxicity of Human Leukemia Cells Interaction with Reduced Glutathione, researchers suggested that Only selenocystine and sodium selenite showed anti-tumor activity, and these were also the only compounds which demonstrated significant redox chemistry, including depletion of cellular glutathione, stimulation of glutathione reductase, and stimulation of oxygen consumption. The interaction of these two compounds with glutathione suggests an intriguing potential role for them in cancer therapy.

5. Etc.

A. Conventional medicine
1. Chemotherapy
a. Chemotherapy, most of the time uses medications to eliminate cancer cells with IV or injection by giving of medicine directly into a vein or taking orally. As the medications travel through our bloodstream, they kill cancer cells throughout the body including the cancer of myeloma. It is the primary treatment for patient with multiple myeloma as it is a slow growing and very sensitive to certain drugs used, such as melphalan and steriods depending to the stage of the cancer.
b. Risks and side effects
b.1. Nausea
b.2. Vomiting
b.3. Hair loss
b.4. Fatigue
b.5. Anemia
b.6. Mouth sores taste and smell changes
b.7. Infection
b.8. Etc.

2. Biological therapy
By enhancing the body's own immune or hormonal system to kill cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells relatively intact with the use of antibodies to attack cancer cells or block their activities or interrupting the hormonal or chemical pathways of the cancers with certain drugs composed of small molecules. In multiple myeloma, bortezomib has been shown to be extreme effective.
b. Risks and side effects
b.1. Allergic reactions,
b. 2. Difficulty breathing, swelling,
b. 3. Nausea,
b.4. Fever or chills, and
b. 5. Dizziness and fatigue
b.6. Etc.
3. Radiotherapy
a. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. If the esophageal cancer is on the upper part of the esopgagus, radio therapy is a choice to use to kill the cancer cells. If multiple myeloma has caused pain to one area or sustained a fracture to the bone then radiotherapy is recommended to reduce the symptoms.
b. Risks and side effects
b.1. Fatigue
b.2. Chest pain
b.3. Heart problem
b.4. Short of breath
b.5. Skin discoloration or pinkness, irritation.
b.6. Etc.

4. Surgery
a. Although surgery is not considered as a primary treatment, it is vital if a fracture occurs that unlikely it will heal itself.
b. Risks and side effects
Surgical and anesthesia risks

5. High dose therapy
a. High dose therapy may only be recommended in case of bone marrow transplant.
b. Side effects
See chemotherapy risks and side effects
6. Etc.
B. Herbal medicine
1. Absinthe
Absinthe is also known as Wormwood, a distilled, highly alcoholic beverage flowers extracted from leaves of the herb Artemisia absinthium. In a study, researcher at the University of Washington found that wormwood can be used as a promising potential treatment for cancer among the ancient arts of Chinese folk medicine.

2. Celandine
Celandine is a herbaceous perennial plant, genus Chelidonium, belonging to the family Papaveraceae, native to Europe and western Asia and introduced widely in North America.
In a study of Ukrain (Ukrain is an anticancer drug based on the extract of the plant)– a new cancer cure? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials, researcher suggested, according to the data from randomised clinical trials that Ukrain to have potential as an anticancer drug. However, numerous caveats prevent a positive conclusion, and independent rigorous studies are urgently needed.

3. Garlic
An analysis of several case-controlled studies in Europe suggests an inverse association between garlic consumption and risk of common cancers.
4. Green tea
In a study od examination of the effects of green tea extracts, researcher found that halts growth of oral cancer cells and breaks down and kills existing oral cancer.

5. Pau D’Arco
Pau D’Arco is also known as Pink Lapacho, genus Tabebuia, belonging to family, native to the America. It contains high levels of alpha-lapachone, beta-lapachone and xyloidone demostrated anti cancer effects. An article published by Dr. Daniel B. Mowrey on Pau d'Arco stated that "Lapacho has produced clinical anti-cancer effects without side effects."

6. Etc.

C. Traditional Chinese medicine
1. Shan Dou Gen
Shan Dou Gen is also known as sophora root. The bitter, cold and toxic herb has been used in TCM to hemorrhoids, cancer of the bladder, acute tonsillitis, psoriasis, hepatitis due to viral infection, etc. In a study, researcher found that purified compound Shan Dou Gen induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells and identified it as sophoranone... Our results indicate that sophoranone might be a unique apoptosis-inducing anticancer agent that targets mitochondria." Int J Cancer 2002 Jun 20;99(6):879-90

2. Jie geng is also known as Platycodon Root. The acrid, bitter and neutral herb has been use in TCM as anti-inflammatory, anti ulcers agent and to inhibit cough, treat bronchitis, sore throat etc., as it stimulates the lung in dispersing and descending functions, transforms phlegm, etc., by enhancing the functions of the lung channels.The Researchers found that Saponins in Jie Geng have been shown to very significantly augment the cytotoxicity of immunotoxins and other targeted toxins directed against human cancer cells.

3. Qing Hao
Qing hao is also known as wormwood. The bitter and cold herb has been used in TCM to
trea lupus, schistosomiasis, chronic bronchitis (essential oil) to elevate the calcium ions of leukemia white cells, etc. In a study, researcher at the University of Washington researcher found that wormwood can be used as a promising potential treatment for cancer among the ancient arts of Chinese folk medicine.

4. Bai Hua She She Cao The Sanjiv Kumar YADAV, Shao Chin LEE(Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore researcher results showed that the ethanol extract from Bai Hua She She Cao effectively evokes cancer cell apoptosis, possibly through burst-mediated caspase activation.

5. Etc.
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