Wednesday, 27 November 2013

Lower respiratory tract infection – Pneumonia Treatments In conventional medicine perspective

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and  muscles breathing , etc,.
V. B. Lower respiratory tract infection
The lower respiratory tract infection are the infection consisting of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs, including the bronchitis and pneumonia. According to  The World Health Report 2004 – Changing History(1), in 2002 lower respiratory track infection were still the leading cause of deaths among all infectious diseases, and accounted for 3.9 million deaths worldwide and 6.9% of all deaths that year.
Pneumonia is defined as a condition of the inflammation of the lung as a result of infection, caused by bacteria, such as bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza viruses in most cases. Fungi, such as Pneumocystis jiroveci, certain medication such as PPI Stomach Acid Drugs and other conditions such as impaired immune systems.
G. Treatments
G.1. In conventional medicine perspective
Antibiotics are the most effective medication used to treat pneumonia. Other medication used conjunction with antibiotics can be helpful in relieving breathing and symptoms.
1. Antibiotics
Pneumonia caused by bacterial pathogens is the leading cause of mortality in children in low-income countries. In a review to identify effective antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children by comparing various antibiotics, conducted by All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, indicated that for treatment of ambulatory patients with CAP, amoxycillin is an alternative to co-trimoxazole. With limited data on other antibiotics, co-amoxyclavulanic acid and cefpodoxime may be alternative second-line drugs. For severe pneumonia without hypoxia, oral amoxycillin may be an alternative to injectable penicillin in hospitalised children; however, for ambulatory treatment of such patients with oral antibiotics, more studies in community settings are required. For children hospitalised with severe and very severe CAP, penicillin/ampicillin plus gentamycin is superior to chloramphenicol. The other alternative drugs for such patients are ceftrioxone, levofloxacin, co-amoxyclavulanic acid and cefuroxime. Until more studies are available, these can be used as a second-line therapy69).
Side effects are not limit to soft stools or diarrhea, mild stomach upset, etc.
2. Antivirals
Parainfluenza viruses affect the upper respiratory tract in all age group patients, in children aged 6 months to 3 years in particular. In the study to investigate  the antiviral activity of Ingavirin (2-(imidazole-4-yl) ethanamide of pentandioic-1,5 acid) on a model of parainfluenza infection in Syrian hamsters, showed that the drug was shown to restrict the infectious process in animal lung tissue. This restriction manifested itself as reductions in the infectious titer of parainfluenza virus in the lung tissue, in the degree of pulmonary edema and tissue cell infiltration, and in virus-specific lesion of bronchial epithelial cells(70). Side effects are not limit to dizziness, fatigue, joint or muscle pain, headache, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, insomnia, etc.
3. Other Supportive treatment  to reduce symptoms, include
Fever and pain reducers such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen or acetaminophen, etc.  and cough medicine.

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