Wednesday, 27 November 2013

Lower respiratory tract infection – Bronchitis Preventions – The Antioxidants

Lower respiratory tract infection
The lower respiratory tract infection are the infection consisting of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs, including the bronchitis and pneumonia. According to  The World Health Report 2004 – Changing History(1), in 2002 lower respiratory track infection were still the leading cause of deaths among all infectious diseases, and accounted for 3.9 million deaths worldwide and 6.9% of all deaths that year.
Bronchitis is defined as a condition of an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, the larger and medium-sized airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lung parenchyma(7). Most cases of Bronchitis are as a result of recurrent injure to the airways caused by inhaled irritants and cigarette smoking(6).
E. Preventions
E.3. Antioxidants to prevent bronchitis
1. Antioxidant vitamins C, E and coenzyme Q10 
In the study to to evaluate the effects of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C and E), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and dexamethasone (Dxm) in experimental rat models with pulmonary contusion (PC), showed that Administration of CoQ10 resulted in a significant increase in PaO2 values compared with the group I (p = 0.004). Levels of plasma MDA in group II were significantly higher than those in the group I (p = 0.01). Early administration of vitamin C, CoQ10, and Dxm significantly decreased the levels of MDA (p = 0.01). Lung contusion due to blunt trauma significantly decreased SOD activities in rat lung tissue compared with group I (p = 0.01). SOD levels were significantly elevated in animals treated with CoQ10, Vitamin E, or Dxm compared with group II (p = 0.01)(46).
2. Vitamin D
In the cohort  to investigate the association of maternal vitamin D and maternal asthma and infant respiratory infection severity of 70% white, 19% African American, and 21% had asthma, found that
overall, the median maternal vitamin D level was 20 ng/mL (interquartile range, 14-28). Among white women, a 14 ng/mL increase in vitamin D was associated with a decreased odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.86). Maternal vitamin D was not associated with infant bronchiolitis score(47).
3. Curcumin
Curcumin derived from the rhizome of turmeric has been used for decades and it exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory properties by downregulation of various inflammatory mediators,. according to the study by Panjab University(48)
4. Etc.
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