Wednesday, 27 November 2013

Lower respiratory tract infection (Respiratory Disease) – The Classification

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseasesRestrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and  muscles breathing , etc,.
V. B. Lower respiratory tract infection
The lower respiratory tract infection are the infection consisting of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs, including the bronchitis and pneumonia. According to  The World Health Report 2004 – Changing History(1), in 2002 lower respiratory track infection were still the leading cause of deaths among all infectious diseases, and accounted for 3.9 million deaths worldwide and 6.9% of all deaths that year.
B. Classification
Two most common types of lower respiratory track infection, include
B.1. Bronchitis
Bronchitis is defined as a condition of an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, the larger and medium-sized airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lung parenchyma(7). Most cases of Bronchitis are as a result of recurrent injure to the airways caused by inhaled irritants and cigarette smoking(6). There are 2 types of bronchitis
1. Acute Bronchitis
Short term infection with symptoms of green sputum, chest discomfort or soreness, fever as a result of cold or flu of which only last for a few days.

2. Chronic Bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis is defined as phlegm on most days, at least 3 months per year for ≥ 2 yrs or cough and phlegm on most days, at least 3 months per year for ≥ 2 yrs(7).
B.2. Pneumonia
Pneumonia is defined as a condition of the inflammation of the lung as a result of infection, caused by bacteria, such as bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza viruses in most cases. Fungi, such as Pneumocystis jiroveci, certain medication such as PPI Stomach Acid Drugs and other conditions such as impaired immune systems can also induced the disease.

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