Cardiovascular disease is defined as medical conditions affecting the cardiovascular system, including heart, blood vessels(arteries and veins).
II. Ischemic heart disease
Ischemic heart disease is defined as a condition of reduced blood supply of the heart muscle, as a result of coronary artery disease caused by plague building up in the arteries.
E.2. Treatments in herbal medicine
1. Soybean is the genus Glycine, belonging to the family Fabaceae, one of the legumes that contains twice as much protein per acre as any other major vegetable or grain crop, native to Southeast Asia. Now, it is grown worldwide with suitable climate for commercial profit and a a healthy foods. The herb has been used in traditional medicine for the proper functioning of the bowels, heart, kidney, liver, stomach. etc.
a. Insulin sensitive
Soybean helps to normalize plasma glucose and insulin homeostasis, according to "Increased insulin sensitivity and changes in the expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes and beta cell transcription factors in diabetic KKAy-mice after feeding with a soy bean protein rich diet high in isoflavone content" by Nordentoft I, Jeppesen PB, Hong J, Abudula R, Hermansen K.(67)
b. Cardiovascular diseases
Soy protein reduces reduces the levels of serum lipoprotein, decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol/HDL-C and TC/HDL-Cpostmenopausal women are at risk of cardiovascular disease, according to "Effects of soy bean on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipoproteins in hyperlipidemic postmenopausal women" by Shidfar F, Ehramphosh E, Heydari I, Haghighi L, Hosseini S, Shidfar S.(68)
c. Adipogenesis and Adipolysis
Germinated soy bean protein hydrolysates had an effect on inhibition of lipid storage in adypocites and increasing lipolysis, according to "Effect of Germinated Soybean Protein Hydrolysates on Adipogenesis and Adipolysis in 3T3-L1 Cells" by González-Espinosa de Los Monteros LA, Ramón-Gallegos E, Torres-Torres N, Mora-Escobedo R.(69)
d. Antioxidant effects
Extract from Virginia-grown soybean seeds had exerted its antioxidant effect when compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities, according to "Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction" by Chung H, Ji X, Canning C, Sun S, Zhou K.(70)
e. Diabetes and hypertension
Soybean phenolic-rich extracts has exerted the inhibitory activities of phenolic-rich extracts from soybean on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activities in vitro, according to "Soybean phenolic-rich extracts inhibit key-enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension (angiotensin I converting enzyme) in vitro" by Ademiluyi AO, Oboh G.(71)
2. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold and flu to the Plague, blood pressure cholesterol levels, natural antibiotic, etc.
In the assessment of garlic extract and its effect of hypertension. found that Aged garlic extract was generally well tolerated and acceptability of trial treatment was high (92%) and aged garlic extract is superior to placebo in lowering systolic blood pressure similarly to current first line medications in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension, according to "Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: a randomised controlled trial" by Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP.(72) 7. Atherosclerosis
In the demonstration of aged garlic extract therapy with supplements (AGE+S) and theirs effect on cardiovascular diseases found that CAC progression was significantly lower and TR significantly higher in the AGE+S compared to the placebo group after adjustment of cardiovascular risk factors (p<0.05). Total cholesterol, LDL-C, homocysteine, IgG and IgM autoantibodies to MDA-LDL and apoB-immune complexes were decreased, whereas HDL, OxPL/apoB, and Lp (a) were significantly increased in AGE+S to placebo and concluded that AGE+S is associated with a favorable improvement in oxidative biomarkers, vascular function, and reduced progression of atherosclerosis., according to "Aged garlic extract supplemented with B vitamins, folic acid and L-arginine retards the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized clinical trial" by Budoff MJ, Ahmadi N, Gul KM, Liu ST, Flores FR, Tiano J, Takasu J, Miller E, Tsimikas S.(73)
In a study of measurements of pH, water holding capacity, color, oxymyoglobin content, TBARS and oxidation-reduction potential in evaluating the effects of a dietary protein-xanthophylls (PX) concentrate of alfalfa to turkey diets conducted by University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Skromna 8, 20-704 Lublin, (74), researchers found that TBARS and oxidation-reduction potential values suggested that the inclusion of the concentrate to turkey diets acts as an antioxidant in the raw meat.
In a study to test the effect of Alfalfa used in traditional medicine to treat high blood cholesterol conducted by Malinow MR, McLaughlin P, Stafford C.(75), in 3 human volunteers during ingestion of diets containing alfalfa seeds (AS) for 3 weeks, researchers found that Plasma cholesterol concentrations were reduced and No signs of toxicity were detected through serum determinations of multiple parameters. The ingestion of AS in rats decreased the concentration of plasma cholesterol, reduced intestinal absorption of exogenous and endogenous cholesterol, and increased fecal biliary excretion.
In a study of Fifteen patients with hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP), types IIA (n = 8), IIB (n = 3) and IV (n = 4) were given 40 g of heat prepared alfalfa seeds 3 times daily at mealtimes for 8 weeks with otherwise unchanged diet, conducted by Mölgaard J, von Schenck H, Olsson AG.(3), found that patients with type II HLP alfalfa treatment caused after 8 weeks a maximal lowering of pretreatment median values of total plasma cholesterol from 9.58 to 8.00 mmol/l (P less than 0.001) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from 7.69 to 6.33 mmol/l (P less than 0.01), which corresponds to decreases of 17% and 18%, respectively. Maximal decrease was 26% in total cholesterol and 30% in LDL cholesterol. In two patients with hypercholesterolemia the LDL cholesterol decreased less than 5%. Apolipoprotein B decreased in the same period from 2.17 to 1.43 g/l (P less than 0.05) in type II HLP, corresponding to 34% decrease, whereas apolipoprotein A-I did not change. Body weight increased slightly during the first 4 weeks of alfalfa treatment (P less than 0.001) probably because of the caloric content in the alfalfa seeds. After cessation of treatment, all lipoprotein concentrations returned to pretreatment levels. We conclude that alfalfa seeds can be added to the diet to help normalize serum cholesterol concentrations in patients with type II HLP.
4. Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation and elevation of the endothelial intracellular Ca(2+) level in SHR, resulting in hypotension, according to the study of "Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on blood pressure and vascular endothelial response by acetylcholine in spontaneously hypertensive rats" by Kubota Y, Tanaka N, Kagota S, Nakamura K, Kunitomo M, Umegaki K, Shinozuka K.(76)
b. Cardiovascular tissues
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) has shown the protection of the cardiovascular tissues against HgCl(2)-induced oxidative damage, according to the study of "Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract against mercury(II)-induced cardiovascular oxidative damage in rats" by Tunali-Akbay T, Sener G, Salvarli H, Sehirli O, Yarat A.(77)
Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGB) has demonstrated the activities of limitation of the absorption of cholesterol, inactivation of HMGCoA and favorable regulation of profiles of essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (EFA), according to the study of "Application of GC/MS-based metabonomic profiling in studying the lipid-regulating effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats" by Zhang Q, Wang GJ, A JY, Wu D, Zhu LL, Ma B,(78)
5. Grape seed extract
Grape Seed Extract is the commercial extracts from whole grape seeds that contains many concentrations, including vitamin E, flavonoids, linoleic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins(OPCs), etc..The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agents and to treat skin wounds with less scarring, allergies, macular degeneration, arthritis, enhance circulation of blood vessels, lower cholesterol, etc.
a. Antioxidant Activity
in the assessment of phenolic content, antioxidant activity of White and red wines spiked with green tea extract and grape seed extract found that the green tea extract and grape seed extract increased antioxidant activity dose-dependently and the CRTs varied considerably between the Korean and Australian groups, with Koreans preferring wines spiked with green tea extract and Australians showing a preference for wines spiked with grape seed extract, according to "Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity and Cross-Cultural Consumer Rejection Threshold in White and Red Wines Functionally Enhanced with Catechin-Rich" by Yoo YJ, Saliba A, Prenzler PD, Ryan DM.(79)
in the association of consumption of red wine and other polyphenolic compounds and prevention of cardiovascular diseases found that aortic atherosclerosis evaluated as the cholesterol content in aortic tissue was comparable in the control and GSE-dosed females, but it was significantly reduced in the abdominal part of GSE-dosed male compared to the controls (P < 0.05). In conclusion, feeding GSE extract to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits had no significant effects in females but was associated with transient less hypercholesterolemic response to semisynthetic diet, according to "Effects of red grape skin and seed extract supplementation on atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits" by Frederiksen H, Mortensen A, Schrøder M, Frandsen H, Bysted A, Knuthsen P, Rasmussen SE.(80)
a. Hypotensive effects
In the investigation of Hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) leaves, flowers and berries used by herbal practitioners in the UK to treat hypertension in conjunction with prescribed drugs indicated that this is the first randomised controlled trial to demonstrate a hypotensive effect of hawthorn in patients with diabetes takin, according to "Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial" by Walker AF, Marakis G, Simpson E, Hope JL, Robinson PA, Hassanein M, Simpson HC(81)
b. Cardiac effects
In the evaluation of the potential cardiac effects of two alcohol extracts of commercially available hawthorn found that the mechanism of cardiac activity of hawthorn is via the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and intracellular calcium concentrations are influenced, according to "A comparison of the effects of commercially available hawthorn preparations on calcium transients of isolated cardiomyocytes" by Rodriguez ME, Poindexter BJ, Bick RJ, Dasgupta A.(82)
c. Cardiovascular disease
In the analyzing the effect of hawthorn in prevention and protection of cardiovascular disease indicated that these beneficial effects may in part be due to the presence of antioxidant flavonoid components. While a number of studies have been performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of hawthorn, an international, multicenter, prospective clinical study including a large number of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II/III heart failure patients is ongoing to test hawthorn's long-term therapeutic effects, according to "Hawthorn: potential roles in cardiovascular disease"by Chang WT, Dao J, Shao ZH.(83)
d. Chronic heart failure
In the assessment of Hawthorn extract usedas an oral treatment option for chronic heart failure, found that Ten trials including 855 patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association classes I to III) provided data that were suitable for meta-analysis. For the physiologic outcome of maximal workload, treatment with hawthorn extract was more beneficial than placebo (WMD (Watt) 5.35, 95% CI 0.71 to 10.00, P < 0.02, n = 380). Exercise tolerance were significantly increased by hawthorn extract (WMD (Watt x min) 122.76, 95% CI 32.74 to 212.78, n = 98). The pressure-heart rate product, an index of cardiac oxygen consumption, also showed a beneficial decrease with hawthorn treatment (WMD (mmHg/min) -19.22, 95% CI -30.46 to -7.98, n = 264). Symptoms such as shortness of breath and fatigue improved significantly with hawthorn treatment as compared with placebo (WMD -5.47, 95% CI -8.68 to -2.26, n = 239), according to "Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure" by Pittler MH, Guo R, Ernst E.(84)
in the determination of The Yishoujiangzhi (de-blood-lipid) tablets (composed of Radix Polygori Multiflori, Rhizoma Polygonati, Fructus Lycii, Crataegus Pinnatifida and Cassia Tora) and its effect on Hyperlipemia found that in the treatment of 130 cases of hyperlipemia, achieving an effective rate of 87.0% in lowering serum cholesterol and 80.8% in lowering triglyceride, according to 'Yishou jiangzhi (de-blood-lipid) tablets in the treatment of hyperlipemia" by Guan Y, Zhao S.(85)
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