Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Green Peas (Pisum Sativum)

Green Peas

Green Pea is a species of Pisum Sativum, belongs to the family Fabaceae and native to western Asia from the Mediterranean Sea to the Himalaya Mountains. It is a green, pod-shaped vegetable and a cool season crop grown in many parts of the world for commercial purposes.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Dietary fibre
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Vitamin A
7. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
8. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
9. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
10. Pantothenic acid (B5)
11. Vitamin B6
12. Folate (Vitamin B9)
13. Vitamin C
14. Vitamin K
15. Typtrophan
16. Calcium
17. Copper
18. Iron
19. Magnesium
20. Phosphorus
21. Potassium
22. Zinc
23. Etc.

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Hypocholesterolaemic effects
In the investigation of six to ten local legumes were studied as follows: cowpeas, mung beans, pole sitao, chickpeas, green peas, groundnuts, pigeon peas, kidney beans, lima beans and soyabeans and their health benefits found that mineral availability from legumes differs and may be attributed to their mineral content, mineral-mineral interaction and from their phytic and tannic acid content; legumes are considered low-GI foods and have shown potential hypocholesterolaemic effects, according to "The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre" by Trinidad TP, Mallillin AC, Loyola AS, Sagum RS, Encabo RR.(a)

2. Antioxidant activity
In the evaluation of six different vegetable species were examined: carrots (Daucus carota L.), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), tomatoes (Solanumn lycopersicum L.), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), peas (Pisum sativum L.), and yellow peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) and theirs antioxidant activity consequent to 3 typical home cooking practices (steaming, boiling, and microwave cooking) in fresh and home frozen vegetables found that raw vegetables are nutritionally superior to their frozen and/or cooked forms. In the current study, we provide evidence that this is not always the case, according to "Effect of home freezing and Italian style of cooking on antioxidant activity of edible vegetables" by Danesi F, Bordoni A(b)

3. Color of beans
In the identification of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of U.S.-produced cool season legumes found that Colored common beans and black soybeans exhibited higher TPC, TFC, CTC, FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC values than those of yellow peas, green peas, and chickpeas. Antioxidant activities (FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC) were strongly correlated (r= 0.96, 0.94, and 0.89, respectively, P < 0.01) with TPC. TPC and ORAC were moderately correlated (P < 0.01) with either the seed hull surface color or the flour color, according to "Comparative analyses of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and color of cool season legumes and other selected food legumes" by Xu BJ, Yuan SH, Chang SK.(c)

4. Atherosclerosis
In observation of the statement that high intake of fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease found that a diet rich in green and yellow vegetables inhibits the development of atherosclerosis and may therefore lead to a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease, according to "A diet rich in green and yellow vegetables inhibits atherosclerosis in mice" by Adams MR, Golden DL, Chen H, Register TC, Gugger ET.(d)

5. Tumors
In the evaluation of the effects of crude phytoestrogen extracts from rye (Secale cereale), green pea (Pisum sativum) and yellow pea seeds (Pisum sativum cv.) on cell proliferation and the production of progesterone in trophoblast tumor cells of the cell line Jeg3 found that green and yellow pea seeds contain measurable concentrations of isoflavones and rye seeds contain lignans which can be isolated and used for special human diet programs, according to "Effects of phytoestrogen extracts isolated from rye, green and yellow pea seeds on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumor cells Jeg3" by Matscheski A, Richter DU, Hartmann AM, Effmert U, Jeschke U, Kupka MS, Abarzua S, Briese V, Ruth W, Kragl U, Piechulla B.(e)

6. Etc.

B. health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin K
Vitamin K not only plays an important role in protecting our skin from aging, it is also needed for the proper clotting of blood, thus decreasing the risk of excessive bleeding, in a study of "Delayed vitamin K deficiency as a cause of bleeding: still a concern in the 21st century!" by Kasatkar P, Shetty S, Ghosh K., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Laboratory tests confirmed acquired bleeding diathesis due to vitamin K deficiency, which was corrected after adequate vitamin K supplementation. VKDB is not an uncommon phenomenon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child with bleeding diathesis.

2. Manganese
It is one of important trace in preventing osteoporosis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(1)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(I)

3. Vitamin C
Vitamin C, one of the powerful antioxidant, prevents bad cholesterol (LDL) building up as plaque in the arteries causing heart attack or stroke, according to the study of "Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns" by Bhupathiraju SN, Tucker KL., posted in PubMed(II)

4. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prevent and treat Diabetes. As Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(III)

5. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(1) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(IV)

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Osteocalcin
Osteocalcin, secreted solely by osteoblasts found in green peas plays a important role in the body's metabolic regulation and bone-building, according to the study of "The relationship between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and bone density, osteocalcin level and growth in adolescents" by Ozaydin E, Dayangac-Erden D, Erdem-Yurter H, Derman O, Coşkun T., posted in PubMed(1)

2. Antioxidant
Vitamin C, one of the powerful antioxidant, prevents bad cholesterol (LDL) building up as plaque in the arteries causing heart attack or stroke, according to the study of "Coronary heart disease prevention: nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns" by Bhupathiraju SN, Tucker KL., posted in PubMed(2)

3. OsteoporosisBy maintaining the proper ratio of magnesium and calcium, Green peas helps to build a strong bone, by enhancing the body in absorbing calcium due to the proper ratio of magnesium and calcium, according to the study of "Association of hip fracture incidence and intake of calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and vitamin K." by Yaegashi Y, Onoda T, Tanno K, Kuribayashi T, Sakata K, Orimo H., posted in PubMed(3)

4. Immune system
Since green peas contains many antioxidants, it enhances the immune system fighting against forming of free radicals, thus reducing the risk of radical forming of heart diseases irregular cells growth cause of tumors and cancers, according to the study of "Effects of antioxidants on immune system ageing" by De la Fuente M., posted in PubMed(4)

5. Folate
Folate plays a critical role in proper DNA synthesis and cell division, according to the study of "Folate stimulation of wound DNA synthesis" by Zhang XJ, Chinkes DL, Herndon DN., posted in PubMed(5), thus preventing low birth weight and developmental and long-term adverse health outcomes, according to the study of "Effects of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies during pregnancy on fetal, infant, and child development" by Molloy AM, Kirke PN, Brody LC, Scott JM, Mills JL.posted in PubMed(6)

6. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Since it contains measure amount of Purines, it may cause health problem for people with untreated kidney disease.
2. Etc.

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