Monday, 11 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Carrots (Daucus carota)

Carrot can grow to 3ft tall. It is root vegetable with orange color normally, a sub spices of Daucus carota, belongs to the family Apiaceae, native to Asian and Europe.

Nutritional Benefits

1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fibre
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Vitamin A
7. Thiamine (VittaminB1)
8. Riboflavin (Vittamin B2)
9. Niacin (Vittamin B3)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vittamin B9)
12. Vitamin C 13. Vitamin K
14. Calcium
15. Iron
16. Magnesium
17. Molybdenum
18. Phosphorus
19. Potassium
20. Sodium
21. Etc.

Health benefits

A. Health Benefits according to studies
1. Colon cancer
Carrot juice has exerted the property in reducing the risk of colon cancer, according to the study of "Effects of carrot and tomato juice consumption on faecal markers relevant to colon carcinogenesis in humans" by Schnäbele K, Briviba K, Bub A, Roser S, Pool-Zobel BL, Rechkemmer G.(a)

2. Cardiovascular health

Drinking carrot juice can enhance the cardiovascular health as it increases the total antioxidant status and decreases the lipid peroxidation, according to the study of "Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults" by Potter AS, Foroudi S, Stamatikos A, Patil BS, Deyhim F.(b)

3. Leukemia
Carrot juice extract with has exerted the properties of induced apoptosis and inhibited progression through the cell cycle in the treatment of leukemia, according to the study of "Bioactive Chemicals from Carrot (Daucus carota) Juice Extracts for the Treatment of Leukemia" by Zaini R, Clench MR, Le Maitre CL.(c)

Purple carrot juice
Purple carrot juice (usually orange inside) has demonstrated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in improving glucose tolerance as well as cardiovascular and hepatic structure and function, according to the study of "Comparison of purple carrot juice and β-carotene in a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rat model of the metabolic syndrome" by Poudyal H, Panchal S, Brown L.(d)

5. Oxidative DNA damage
Carot juice may have a
possible preventive effects in disease causation and progression caused by Oxidative DNA damage due to its antioxidant properties, according to the study of "Oxidative DNA damage in human white blood cells in dietary antioxidant intervention studies" by Møller P, Loft S.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health Benefits according to the concentration

1. Antioxidant
Carrot contains high amount of antioxidants Vitamin A, it not only improves the immune system in fighting against invasion of foreign substances and regulates the normal cell growth, thus decreasing the risk of cancer and tumor, according to the study of "Carotenoids inhibit proliferation and regulate expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in K562 cancer cells" by Zhang X, Zhao WE, Hu L, Zhao L, Huang J.(1), but also protects vision health as it helps the eyes to adjust to light changes by preventing night blind blindness by increasing the adaptability of the human eye to bright light and darkness, according to the study of "Culture of highly differentiated human retinal pigment epithelium for analysis of the polarized uptake, processing, and secretion of retinoids" by Hu J, Bok D.(2)

2. Coagulation and wrinkles
Carrot contains a measurable amount of vitamin K of that not only enhances the under layer of skin against skin aging, according to the study of "Vitamin K shows potential in the fight against wrinkle" katie Bird (3)by but also improve coagulation caused by bleeding of wound, acccording to the study of "Vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors deficiency" by Brenner B, Kuperman AA, Watzka M, Oldenburg J.(4)

3. Vitamin C
Vitamin C not only has been best known for its function in relieve the symptoms of common cold, according to the study of "Examining the evidence for the use of vitamin C in the prophylaxis and treatment of the common cold" by Heimer KA, Hart AM, Martin LG, Rubio-Wallace S..(5) but also lowers the risk of upper respiratory tract infection, according to the study of "Dietary intake and supplement use of vitamins C and e and upper respiratory tract infection" by Fondell E, Bälter O, Rothman KJ, Bälter K.(6)

4. Etc.

C. Other health Benefits
1. Diabetes
carrot contains high amount of fiber which helps to release the glucose slowly into blood stream as it has an inverse relationship with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and may contribute to both the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitu, according to the study of "[Dietary fibers: current trends and health benefits in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes].[Article in Portuguese]" by Mello VD, Laaksonen DE(7)
2. Colon cancer
The polyacetylene falcarinol, isolated from carrot may have the potential in benefiting colon cancer ,according to the study of "Biphasic effect of falcarinol on caco-2 cell proliferation, DNA damage, and apoptosis" by Young JF, Duthie SJ, Milne L, Christensen LP, Duthie GG, Bestwick CS.(8)

3. Hypertension
Potassium rich of carrot not only helps to maintain the of the levels of sodium but also reduces the rick of high blood pressure due to it diuretic effects, according to the study of "Blood pressure lowering efficacy of potassium-sparing diuretics (that block the epithelial sodium channel) for primary hypertension' by Heran BS, Chen JM, Wang JJ, Wright JM.(9)
4. Obesity
Since it contains high amount of fiber, it makes the stomach feeling fullness longer, thus reducing the risk food craving, according to the study of "The role of dietary fiber in the development and treatment of childhood obesity" by Kimm SY.(10)

4. Etc.

Side Effects

1. Over consumption of carrots can cause a benign condition of the skin turns orange.
2. Since it is a root vegetable, people with weakened kidney should consult with their doctor before consuming.
3. Etc.

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