Monday, 11 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

Cabbage is a spicies of Brassica oleracea belong to the family Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae), native to the Mediterranean region along the seacoast. It has a short stem of which is crowded a mass of leaves, usually green but in some varieties, it may be red or purplish.

Nutritional Supplements

1. Carbohydrates
2.Fibers 3. Omega
3 fatty acid
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6.Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Pantothenic acid (B5)
10.Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vitamin B9)
12. Vitamin C
13. Calcium
14.I ron
15. Magnesium
16. Phosphorus
17. Potassium
18. Tryptophan
19. Zinc
20. Etc.

Health Benefits

A. Health Benefits according to studies
1. Breast Engorgement
Hot and cold compress and cabbage leaves have demonstrated the activities in decreasing breast engorgement and pain in postnatal mothers during the first two weeks following childbirth, according to the study of "A Comparison of Cabbage Leaves vs. Hot and Cold Compresses in the Treatment of Breast Engorgement" by Smriti Arora, Manju Vatsa, and Vatsla Dadhwal(a)
2. Cardiovascular health
Cabbage in steam cooking and other vegetable such as collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper has exerted the ability in lowering the recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption and may be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease, cancer and improve public health, according to the study of "Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage" by Kahlon TS, Chiu MC, Chapman MH.(b)

3. Prostate cancer
Brassica vegetables are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk, including broccoli, cabbage, mustard and collard greens, and bok choy, contain glucosinolates by breaking down products of which are potent modulators of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that protect DNA from damage, according to the study of "Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence" by Kristal AR, Lampe JW.(c)

4. Cancer prevention Brassica vegetables have shown the inverse associations between the consumption of brassica's and risk of lung cancer, stomach cancer, all cancers taken together due to certain hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, according to the study of "Brassica vegetables and cancer prevention. Epidemiology and mechanisms" by van Poppel G, Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA.(d)

5. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to the concentration1. Vitamin K
a. Degenerative diseases of ageing
Long-term vitamin K inadequacy may reduce the function of supporting the carboxylation of at least some of these Gla-protein that can lead the development of degenerative diseases of ageing including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, according to the study of "Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing" by Cees Vermeer and Elke Theuwissen(1)

b. Intracranial bleeding
In a study in the 4-year study period, 16/64 (25%) of the infants admitted with intracranial bleeding had late intracranial VKDB, resulting in an overall incidence of 2.1/100,000 live births (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.5) conducted by University Medical Center Utrecht(2) indicated that Intracranial bleeding may be associated with vitamin K deficiency

2. vitamin C
a. Asthma
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(3)

b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(4)

3. Dietary fiber
a. Obesity
Since it contains high amount of fiber, it makes the stomach feeling fullness longer, thus reducing the risk food craving, according to the study of "The role of dietary fiber in the development and treatment of childhood obesity" by Kimm SY.(5)

b. Diabetes
Carrot contains high amount of fiber which helps to release the glucose slowly into blood stream as it has an inverse relationship with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and may contribute to both the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitu, according to the study of "[Dietary fibers: current trends and health benefits in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes].[Article in Portuguese]" by Mello VD, Laaksonen DE(6)

4. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Respiratory Papillomatosis
Cabbage is used as foods to treat recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, due to high amount of I3C (indole-3-carbinol,), according to the study of "Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: an overview of current thinking and treatment' by Goon P, Sonnex C, Jani P, Stanley M, Sudhoff H.(7)

2. Colon cancer
Indole-3-carbinol found in cabbage if you combination with genistein enhance gastrointestinal health thus reducing the risk of colon cancer, according to the study of "A combination of indol-3-carbinol and genistein synergistically induces apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation and progression of autophagy" by Nakamura Y, Yogosawa S, Izutani Y, Watanabe H, Otsuji E, Sakai T.(8)

3. Omega 3 fatty acid
Cabbage reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases by controlling the secretion of bad cholesterol, due to high amount of Omega 3 fatty acid, according to the study of "The Omega-3 Index as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases' by von Schacky C.(9)
4. Etc.

Side effects
1. No Known side effect.

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