Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy Foods - Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea)

Sweet potatoes
Sweet potato is a large, starchy, sweet tasting tuberous roots vegetable, genus Ipomoea, belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Its young leaves can be made into a delicious dish in Chinese foods. Some species of batatas are actually poisonous.

Nutritional supplements
1. Vitamin A
2. Vitamin B6
3. Vitamin C
4. Manganese
5. Potassium
6. Copper
7. Iron
8. Phosphorus
9. Magnesium
Link10. Carbohydrate
11. Protein
12. Dietary fiber
13. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according studies
cardioprotective and chemopreventive advantages
In the investigation of Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves dietary source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, dietary fiber, and essential fatty acids in Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves found that Sweet potato has the potential cardioprotective and chemopreventive advantages of consuming sweet potato leaves, thus indicating that increased consumption of this vegetable should be advocated, according to "Sweet potato leaves: properties and synergistic interactions that promote health and prevent disease" by Johnson M, Pace RD.(a)

Human nutrition
In the review the past, present, and future role of the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) in human nutrition found that repositioning sweet potato production and its potential for value-added products will contribute substantially to utilizing its benefits and many uses in human food systems. Multidisciplinary, integrated research and development activities aimed at improving production, storage, postharvest and processing technologies, and quality of the sweet potato and its potential value-added products are critical issues, which should be addressed globally, according to "Sweet potato: a review of its past, present, and future role in human nutrition" by Bovell-Benjamin AC.(b)

Anti-atherosclerotic and antidiabetic agent
In the examination of Ethanol and water extract of purple sweet potato (PSP) and their antioxidant effects found that the extract of PSP can be used as a putative anti-atherosclerotic and antidiabetic agent with strong antioxidant functions. This is the first report to show the biological functions of PSP extract to treat hyperlipidemic and hyperglycemic disorders, according to "Ethanol and water extract of purple sweet potato exhibits anti-atherosclerotic activity and inhibits protein glycation" by Park KH, Kim JR, Lee JS, Lee H, Cho KH.(c)

4. Cognitive effects
In the
anthocyanin of Purple sweet potato color (PSPC) ans its neuroprotective effect found that PSPC decreased the expression level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), increased the activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and catalase (CAT), and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. Our data suggested that PSPC attenuated D-gal-induced cognitive impairment partly via enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity, according to "Purple sweet potato color ameliorates cognition deficits and attenuates oxidative damage and inflammation in aging mouse brain induced by d-galactose" by Shan Q, Lu J, Zheng Y, Li J, Zhou Z, Hu B, Zhang Z, Fan S, Mao Z, Wang YJ, Ma D.(d)

5. Prostate cancer
In the identification of
Polyphenol-rich sweet potato greens extract and it prostateprotective effect found that oral administration of 400 mg/kg SPGE remarkably inhibited growth and progression of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼69% in nude mice, as shown by tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. Most importantly, SPGE did not cause any detectable toxicity to rapidly dividing normal tissues such as gut and bone marrow. This is the first report to demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of sweet potato greens in prostate cancer, according to "Polyphenol-rich sweet potato greens extract inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo" by Karna P, Gundala SR, Gupta MV, Shamsi SA, Pace RD, Yates C, Narayan S, Aneja R.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(1) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(2)

2. Vitamin Ca. Asthma
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(3)

b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(4)

3. ManganeseManganese in dried peas not only is a processor for the metabolizing of glucose and carbohydrates, it also plays an important role as part of the natural antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), that helps to fight the damage caused by free radicals, according to the study of "Regulation of Manganese Antioxidants by Nutrient Sensing Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae" by Reddi AR, Culotta VC., posted in PubMed, researchers found that loss of either of these upstream kinase sensors dramatically inhibited the potency of Mn as an antioxidant. Downstream of Rim15p are transcription factors Gis1p and the redundant Msn2/Msn4p pair that typically respond to nutrient and stress signals. Both transcription factors were found to modulate the potency of the Mn-antioxidant but in opposing fashions: loss of Gis1p was seen to enhance Mn-antioxidant activity whereas loss of Msn2/4p greatly suppressed it. Our observed roles for nutrient and stress response kinases and transcription factors in regulating the Mn-antioxidant underscore its physiological importance in aerobic fitness.

4. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Memory Improvements
In the investigation of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and Memory Improvements found that The multivitamin improved speed of response on a measure of spatial working memory, according to ""Memory improvements in elderly women following 16 weeks treatment with a combined multivitamin, mineral and herbal supplement : A randomized controlled trial" by Macpherson H, Ellis KA, Sali A, Pipingas A.(5)

b. Anti cancer effects
In the observation of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and its anti cancer effects found that vitamin B6 is involved in the methyl donor cycle ant thus, some of the antitumor properties of vitamin B6 may involve an indirect effect on the level of DNA or histone methylation. according to ""Vitamin B6 and cancer: from clinical data to molecularly mechanisms" by Sujol G, Docquier A, Boulahtouf A, Castet-Nicolas A, Cavaillès V.(6)

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Arterial benefit
Sweet potato is rich in dietary fiber that not only help to release constipation by enhancing the large intestine in expelling waste (according to the study of "Fiber (glucomannan) is beneficial in the treatment of childhood constipation" by Loening-Baucke V, Miele E, Staiano A., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14993586) but also prevents the oxidation of bad cholesterol from causing plaque building up on the arterial walls that increases the risk of arterial blockage, leading heart diseases, according to the study of "Dietary fiber intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women" Eshak ES, Iso H, Date C, Kikuchi S, Watanabe Y, Wada Y, Wakai K, Tamakoshi A; JACC Study Group., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20573945).

2. Immune enhancer
Since it contains some antioxidants such as beta carotene, vtamin C, etc, it promotes the immune system function in regulating the proper cells division and DNA replication, thus reducing the risk of free radicals cause of cancers and tumors. Inthe study of "Antioxidant nutrients: current dietary recommendations and research update" by McDermott JH., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11111359), reserachers indicated in abstract that Overall, it appears that antioxidant nutrients, especially those from food sources, have important roles in preventing pathogenic processes related to cancer, cardiovascular disease, macular degeneration, cataracts, and asthma, and may enhance immune function.

3. Reducing pancreas stress
The rich amount of dietary fiber helps to release the glucose into blood stream slowly that reduces the risk of insulin sensitive caused by over stress of pancreas in releasing insulin for energy absorption, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332).

4. Osteoporosis
Magnesium beside is important in enhancing heart health by relaxing blood vessels for blood flow to the body (according to the study of "Role of dietary magnesium in cardiovascular disease prevention, insulin sensitivity and diabetes" by Bo S, Pisu E., posted in PubMed(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18196987), it also promotes the calcium metabolism and the hormones that regulate calcium, thus reducing the risk of osteoporosis, according to the study of "Magnesium deficiency and osteoporosis: animal and human observations by Rude RK, Gruber HE., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15607643)

5. Lymphatic function
Potassium found in sweet potato enhances the lymphatic function in regulating the body fluid, thus reducing the risk of fluid retention cause of sweelling, according to the study of "Effects of renal lymphatic occlusion and venous constriction on renal function" by J. Stolarczyk and F. A. Carone, posted in the American Journal of Pathology (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1912464/)

6. Lung health
We always are made to believe that emphysema, a chronic disease of the lungs, as a result of the lose of elasticity of tiny sacs in the lung in absorbing oxygen and as the air goes back into the lungs, it can not breathe in more air, is incurable, but researchers found that increases intake of vitamin A not only prevent but might be able to reverse the damage caused by the disease, according to the study of "Function of vitamin A in the respiratory tract" by Chytil F., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3916043).

7. Etc.

Side effect
1. Oxalates
Sweet potato contains a measurable amounts of oxalates that can cause problem for people with kidney and gallbladder problem.
2. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20883418
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17425943
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20136441
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19865488
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21948980

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967159
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986888
Link(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22006207
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001823

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