Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy Foods - Soy sauce

Soy sauce
Soy sauce is a seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans and filamentous fungus, along with water and salt after a period of sometime, it yields a moromi or thick mash of cereal to obtain soy sauce by pressing it to liquid form. Tamari is made by collecting the liquid which was pressed and the liquid drained drains from miso after a certain time of fermentation.

Nutritional supplements
1. Sodium
2. protein
3. Fat
4. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
5. Iron
6. Manganese
7. Magnesium
7. Phosphorus
8. Riboflavin
9. Vitamin B6
10. Isoflavones
11. Etc

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Cardiovascular health
In the investigation of dietary proteins and their effect in heart diseases found that a direct cholesterol lowering effect of proteins has not been shown. Despite earlier research indicating that soy protein has cardioprotective effects as compared to other proteins, these observations have not been confirmed by randomized placebo-controlled trials. However, most experts recommend the consumption of foods rich in plant proteins as alternatives to meat and dairy products rich in saturated fat and containing cholesterol, according to "Dietary proteins and atherosclerosis" by Darioli R.(a)

2. Perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR)
In the study of isolated a halophilic lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus Th221, from soy sauce moromi and the its effect on serum total immunoglobulin E, found that The change in serum total immunoglobulin E improved significantly at the end of the trial compared with the beginning in this group (p < 0.05). The safety of Th221 treatment was confirmed by laboratory tests and inspection of the general condition of each subject and concluded that Th221 can be expected to safely improve the symptoms of PAR, according to "Clinical efficacy of halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus Th221 from soy sauce moromi for perennial allergic rhinitis" by Nishimura I, Igarashi T, Enomoto T, Dake Y, Okuno Y, Obata A.(b)

3. Anti-allergic activities
In the assessment of oral supplementation of Shoyu polysaccharides (SPS) and its effective intervention for patients with perennial allergic rhinitis found that evaluation of the medication's effectiveness after 4 weeks treatment showed significant differences between the SPS- and placebo-treated groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, SPS of soy sauce improved the quality of life for patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, and soy sauce would be useful in an anti-allergic therapy utilizing everyday foods, according to "Quality of life improvement with soy sauce ingredients, Shoyu polysaccharides, in perennial allergic rhinitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study" by Kobayashi M, Matsushita H, Shioya I, Nagai M, Tsukiyama R, Saito M, Sugita T, Sugimura T, Yamamoto K.(c)

4. Breast cancer
In the analyzing of Shoyu and on the gastric mucosa of the rat found that the animals given shoyu were smaller than the controls; 15 intact rats receiving the sauce were healthy at 33 months compared with 7 controls. Only 9 of 50 operated rats lived 33 months. Breast tumors developed in 10 control rats but in none given shoyu. The distribution of other tumors was the same,... and concluded that Shoyu did not appear to be a carcinogen in the rat; its prolonged use impaired neither health nor longevity. Long-term use was associated with gastric mucus loss and nuclear changes in a few rats, occasionally with a mild gastritis. according to "Long-term effect of shoyu (Japanese soy sauce) on the gastric mucosa of the rat" by MacDonald WC, Dueck JW.(4)

5. Hypolipidemic effect
In the observation of Soy sauce (Shoyu), a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning and its effect on cholesterol level found that in a 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study, hyperlipidemic men (TG >150 mg/dl) were treated with 600 mg of SPS (n=15) or placebo (n=15) daily. After 4 weeks, serum TG levels in the SPS-treated group were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the baseline (0 week). In conclusion, SPS of soy sauce reduce lipid absorption, and soy sauce is a potentially promising seasoning for the treatment of hyperlipidemia through food, according to "Hypolipidemic effect of Shoyu polysaccharides from soy sauce in animals and humans" by Kobayashi M, Magishi N, Matsushita H, Hashimoto T, Fujimoto M, Suzuki M, Tsuji K, Saito M, Inoue E, Yoshikawa Y, Matsuura T.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(1)

2. Manganese
Manganese beside plays an vital role for the proper and normal growth of human bone structure (accodring to the study of "Bone formation within alumina tubes: effect of calcium, manganese, and chromium dopants" by Pabbruwe MB, Standard OC, Sorrell CC, Howlett CR., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15109850)), it also helps to reduce the risk of cancer, (according to the study of "The effects of 3, 4 or 5 amino salicylic acids on manganese-induced neuronal death: ER stress and mitochondrial complexes" by Yoon H, Lee GH, Kim DS, Kim KW, Kim HR, Chae HJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477646 researchers indicated that the salicylate analogues and the antioxidants did not mediate ER stress in this model. The salicylate analogues reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reversed the deficient mitochondrial membrane potential that was induced by Mn. Taken together, the 3, 4, 5 ASA worked in a similar way, regulating the Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and protecting cells.

3. Protein
Protein beside is important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood, it also enhances the nervous system in information transmitting between cells and cells of the other parts of the body, thus reducing the risk of nervous tension, (according to the study of "The planar polarity protein Scribble1 is essential for neuronal plasticity and brain function" by Moreau MM, Piguel N, Papouin T, Koehl M, Durand CM, Rubio ME, Loll F, Richard EM, Mazzocco C, Racca C, Oliet SH, Abrous DN, Montcouquiol M, Sans N, posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20660256)

4. Niacin or vitamin B3
Niacin or vitamin B3 beside is important in production of energy in metabolism of carbohydrate, it also essential for DNA repairing, according to the study of `Niacin deficiency delays DNA excision repair and increases spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced chromosomal instability in rat bone marrow`by Kostecki LM, Thomas M, Linford G, Lizotte M, Toxopeus L, Bartleman AP, Kirkland JB., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618655), production of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland, improving blood circulation and lowering the bad cholesterol (LDL) levels., according to the study of `Lowering LDL cholesterol with margarine containing plant stanol/sterol esters: is it still relevant in 2011?`by Doggrell SA., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21296266)

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
Since soy sauce contains high amount of sodium, a trace mineral is classified as a cause of heart diseases and stroke if eating in high amount. In fact with correct amount, soy sauce not only helps to replace the daily intake of sodium but also enhances health benefits
1. Cholesterol
Certain studies found that certain types of soy sauce (popular in Chinese cookery) have been shown to reduce the levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) because of the existence of large amounts of the isoflavones, so choose your soy sauce wisely, according to the study of `Soy isoflavones lower serum total and LDL cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials`by Taku K, Umegaki K, Sato Y, Taki Y, Endoh K, Watanabe S., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17413118)

2. Isoflavones
Isoflavones is one of the weak estrogen that can compete with estrogen for the same receptor sites, as it decreasing the health risks of excess estrogen, promoting healthy menstrual cycle and reducing the risk of cancers caused by high levels of strong estrogen., according to the study of `Red clover and soy isoflavones-an in vitro safety assessment`by Reiter E, Gerster P, Jungbauer A., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21801124), researchers wrote that
Isoflavones and plant extracts significantly reduced the proliferation activity of the treated cancer cell lines.

3. Riboflavin
Riboflavin or vitamin B2 besides is important for the production of energy in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins due to its coenzymes, flavin adenine dinucleotide and Flavin mononucleotide properties, it also is the best of natural element for treating migraines and muscle pain reliever used together with magnesium, according to the study of `Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial`by Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9484373)

4. Magnesium
Magnesium beside helps to maintain the right ratio with calcium, thus aiding the digestive system in absorption of calcium, according to the study of `Associations of calcium and magnesium in serum and hair with bone mineral density in premenopausal women`by Song CH, Barrett-Connor E, Chung JH, Kim SH, Kim KS., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17848724) it also reduces the risk of irregular heart beat and impairs glucose tolerance, according to the study of `Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women`by Nielsen FH, Milne DB, Klevay LM, Gallagher S, Johnson L., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536123)

5. Etc.

Side effects
1. High amount of sodium in say sauce is not for people with high blood pressure, but one can choose low sodium soy sauce fitted for your needs.
2. Allergic reactions in some people
3. Etc.
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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139566
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19240374
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15492861
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Shoyu%20and%20breast%20cancer
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18813866

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539268

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