5. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
6. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
7. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
8. Vitamin B6
9. Folate (Vitamin B9)
10. Vitamin C
A. health benefits according to studies
1. Acute cough in children
In the investigation of the effectiveness of honey for acute cough in children in ambulatory settings found that Dextromethorphan and honey did not differ significantly on cough frequency (MD -0.49; 95% CI -1.15 to 0.17); cough severity (MD -0.50; 95% CI -1.28 to 0.29), bothersome cough (MD -0.29; 95% CI -1.14 to 0.56) and sleep quality of the children (MD -0.70; 95% CI -1.57 to 0.17) or their parents (MD -0.34; 95% CI -1.24 to 0.55) and concluded that we found insufficient evidence to advise for or against the use of honey for acute cough in children, according to "Honey for acute cough in children" by Oduwole O, Meremikwu MM, Oyo-Ita A, Udoh EE.(a)
2. Wound healing
In the assessment of Potential role of honeyon wound healing found that honey may improve healing times in mild to moderate superficial and partial thickness burns compared with some conventional dressings. Honey dressings as an adjuvant to compression do not significantly increase leg ulcer healing at 12 weeks. There is insufficient evidence to guide clinical practice in other areas. according to "Honey as a topical treatment for wounds" by Jull AB, Rodgers A, Walker N.(b)
3. Antiproliferative effect
In the identification of honey and its effect on keloid fibroblasts found that the methanolic honey extraction has an antiproliferative effect on keloid fibroblasts and a range of volatile compounds has been identified from Tualang honey. The antiproliferative effect of keloid fibroblasts towards Tualang honey may involve cell signaling pathway. Identifying other volatile compounds from different organic solvents should be carried out in future, according to "Antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of tualang honey on human keloid fibroblasts" by Nurul Syazana MS, Halim AS, Gan SH, Shamsuddin S.(c)
4. Antibacterial properties
In the classification of Honey possesses therapeutic potential on antibiotic resistance of bacteria
found that Tualang honey exhibited variable activities against different microorganisms, but they were within the same range as those for manuka honey. This result suggests that tualang honey could potentially be used as an alternative therapeutic agent against certain microorganisms, particularly A. baumannii and S. maltophilia, according to "The antibacterial properties of Malaysian tualang honey against wound and enteric microorganisms in comparison to manuka honey" by Tan HT, Rahman RA, Gan SH, Halim AS, Hassan SA, Sulaiman SA, Kirnpal-Kaur B.(d)
5. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects
In assessment of Tualang honey and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects found that Tualang honey has almost the equal effects when compared with the conventional treatment in treating alkali injury on rabbit's eye. Future research with more number of rabbits and control group is warranted to explore the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey, according to "Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: experimental animal study" by Bashkaran K, Zunaina E, Bakiah S, Sulaiman SA, Sirajudeen K, Naik V.(e)
B. Health benefits according to concentration
Honey contains high amount of glucose and fructose that are simple sugar (monosaccharide) played an important role to enhance energy production in carbohydrate metabolism, as they
are absorbed by the body quickly through insulin and potassium.
C. Other health benefits
1. Antiseptic and antibacterial properties
Recently research study that honey have the antiseptic and antibacterial properties as it increases the immune system in fighting the forming of free radicals causes of inflammation and infection causes of infection due to enzyme glucose oxidase, according to the study of `Antibacterial properties of tualang honey and its effect in burn wound management: a comparative study`by Nasir NA, Halim AS, Singh KK, Dorai AA, Haneef MN., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20576085), researchers found that Tualang honey has a bactericidal as well as bacteriostatic effect. It is useful as a dressing, as it is easier to apply and is less sticky compared to Manuka honey. However, for Gram positive bacteria, tualang honey is not as effective as usual care products such as silver-based dressing or medical grade honey dressing.
2. Diabetes chronic wound
External used is proven to be effective for treating diabetes chronic wound that antibiotic can not be used, according to the study of `Safety and efficacy of a new honey ointment on diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective pilot study`by Abdelatif M, Yakoot M, Etmaan M., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18376651, researchers indicated that Ninety-six per cent of the patients in groups 1 and 2 responded well, with a complete cure, defined as'complete closure of the ulcer without signs of underlying bone infection' by the end of week 9 and for the duration of the six-month follow-up period. All of the ulcers in group 1 healed, as did 92% of those in group 2. All patients in group 3 healed following surgical excision, debridement of necrotic tissue and conservative treatment with PEDYPHAR ointment.
Beside providing strength to bones and teeth by working together with calcium according to the study of `[The effect of one year therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on growth velocity, calcium-phosphorus metabolism, bone mineral density and changes in body composition in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD)].[Article in Polish]`by Zak T, Basiak A, Zubkiewicz-Kucharska A, Noczyńska A., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20529605), it also works with riboflavin and niacin to improve the digestive system in absorbing vital nutrients.
4. Iron and iron deficiency anemia
Iron is essential for the production of red blood cells and carrying life-giving oxygen to human cells. Deficiency of iron causes anemia, anemia of chronic disease, cough, anemia in pregnancy, etc., leading to reducing blood flow to the reproductive organ according to the study of `The effects of iron deficiency on estradiol-induced suppression of erythropoietin induction in rats: implications of pregnancy-related anemia` by Horiguchi H, Oguma E, Kayama F., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15784734)
2. Honey may be poison if produced from the flowers of oleanders, rhododendrons, mountain laurels, sheep laurel, and azaleas etc.
3. It may contain traces of heavy metals, pesticides, etc.
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