Saturday, 23 November 2013

Headaches - Types of Headaches

A headache or cephalalgia is defined as a condition of pain in the region around the head or neck. Normally, it is a symptom of a number of different effects of certain diseases or the head and neck themselves. High headache impact was proven to be associated with worse academic performance.

Types of headache
A. Primary headaches
Primary type of headache is accounted for 90% of all headaches and defined as a condition of pain as the result neck, back, eyes, or other muscle groups in the body, including
1. Migraine Headaches
Migraine headache is one most common headaches defined as condition of chronic neurological disorder of moderate to severe headaches, and nausea and affected over 15% of the population in US alone, as a result of the change in the brain and its surrounding blood vessels.
2. Migraine with Aura
Migraine with Aura defined as condition of common migraine, involves migraine headaches that are preceded by some sort of visual disturbance of an aura such as difficulty speaking, vertigo, ringing in ears, or a number of other brainstem-related symptoms, but sometimes it may be associated with underlying hereditary or acquired cerebrovascular disorders, according to " Migraine aura pathophysiology: the role of blood vessels and microembolisation"
Dalkara T, Nozari A, Moskowitz MA.(A1)
3. Basilar Migraines
Basilar Migraines headache is a rare form of migraine with aura symptoms including dizziness, double vision, loss of balance, confusion, slurred speech, hearing changes and tingling on both sides of the body. Researchers suspected that basilar artery migraine had its start in the basilar artery in the back of your head
4. Hemispheric Migraine Headaches
Hemispheric Migraine is defined as a severe and rare condition of of migraine with aura. Headache pain of a migraine may precede with temporary chemical imbalances causes of impaired vision, muscle control and body sensations, speech, language and hearing difficulty, paralysis or numbness on one side of the body, etc.
5. Menstrual Migraines
Menstrual Migraines is a hormone related headaches happened in the before, during or immediately after the period, or during ovulation as a result of the levels of estrogen and progesterone fluctuations in the menstrual cycle.
6. Migraine without Headache
Is also known as migraine aura without headache or Silent Migraines. Migraine aura without headache should be considered as a diagnosis in anyone who has recurrent episodes of transient symptoms, especially those that are visual or neurological or involve vertigo. Visual and neurological symptoms due to migraine are not unusual and most commonly occur in older persons with a history of migraine headaches. Migraine aura without headache should be diagnosed only when transient. Migraine auras are reversible and recurrent episodes of neurological symptoms that resolve within 1 hour. They are associated with migraine but may not precede a headache, according to "Migraine aura without headache:
Benign, but a diagnosis of exclusion" by ROBERT S. KUNKEL, MD Consultant, Headache Center, Department of Neurology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (Page 529)
7. Tension-Type Headaches
Tension-Type Headaches is the most common type of primary headache and accounted for nearly 90% of all headaches as a result of muscle tightening in the back of the neck or other muscle groups in the body.
a. Episodic tension-type headache
It can occur randomly and is triggered by temporary nerve tension such as stress, anxiety, anger, etc.
b. Chronic tension-type headache
Chronic tension-type headache is a daily or continuous headache. Patient are required to take medicine continuously such as antidepressants

8. Cluster Headache
Cluster Headache also known as suicide headache, is defined as a neurological disease of severely painful headaches that occur periodically over a long period of time. The diseases affects over 0.1% of the population
B. Secondary headaches
Secondary headache is defined as a condition of pain caused by somewhere else in the body, as a result of an underlying medical issue or condition, not counting the muscle groups. The most common causes of headache include
1. Stroke
Stroke is a result of a blockage in the blood vessels (ischemic stroke) or bleeding (hemorrhagic stroke) of that associated ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, including intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage, etc. according to "Headache attributed to stroke, TIA, intracerebral haemorrhage, or vascular malformation" by Carolei A, Sacco S.(B1)

2. Cerebral Aneurysm
Cerebral Aneurysm, a cerebrovascular disorder causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel as a result of weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein of that can lead to sudden severe headache last from several hours to days, according to "Thunderclap headache: symptom of unruptured cerebral aneurysm" by Day JW, Raskin NH.(B2)

3. Lifestyles
a. Smoking
Smoking can cause headache, as a result of Nicotine, one of the components of tobacco, stimulates the blood vessels in the brain to constrict. Exposed to second hand smoke during childhood also increases the risk of cluster headache, according to the evaluation of "Cluster headache as the result of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure during childhood" by Rozen TD(B3)

b. Alcohol
Over drinking alcohol not only cause over hang headache but also result in the dilation of the blood vessels in the brain, causing headaches as a result of the enlarged blood vessel pressing against the fifth cranial nerve and the association of cluster headache and alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (ADH4) gene, according to "Cluster headache is associated with the alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (ADH4) gene" by Rainero I, Rubino E, Gallone S, Fenoglio P, Negro E, De Martino P, Savi L, Pinessi L.(B4)

c. Caffeine
In some people, withdrawal of caffeine intake may be result in headache, leading to symptoms of fatigue, sleepiness or drowsiness, difficulty concentrating, irritability, depression, etc.
According to " Cluster headache and lifestyle: remarks on a population of 374 male patients" by Manzoni GC.(B5)

4. Concussion
Concussions as a result of a minor injury to the brain can temporarily interfere with the brain's normal functioning and cause headache , leading to headache, nausea and dizziness; these may remain for a week or two, according to "[Brain concussion].[Article in Finnish]" by Pälvimäki EP, Siironen J, Pohjola J, Hernesniemi J.(B6)

5. Medication overdoses
Overdoses of certain medication canbe result of cluster headeache, according to "Medication-overuse headache in patients with cluster headache" by
Paemeleire K, Bahra A, Evers S, Matharu MS, Goadsby PJ.(B7)

6. Sinus headache
Sinusitis can develop as a result of exposure to a cold or flu virus, or an allergic reaction to pollen, mold, dust or smoke, leading to symptoms of congestion, cough, runny nose, sore throat, fatigue, fever or sneezing.

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