Monday, 25 November 2013

Gout Treatments In Herbal Medicine perspective

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed. A major restriction of joint movement range was frequent in the shoulder but uncommon in other joints. A shoulder disorder was found in 27% of subjects, rheumatoid arthritis in 1% and osteoarthritis (OA) of the hand, hip, and knee in five, seven, and 18% of subjects, respectively. Disability was frequent: a walking distance of < 500 m was found in 60% and ADL dependency in 40% of the group. Factors related to one or both of these disability measures included female gender, hip and knee OA, impaired vision, cognitive impairment and neurological disease(1a).
Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder(2a)
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia
I. Gout mostly effected one joint is defined as a acute and recurrent condition of arthritis as a result of uric acid builds up in blood cause of joint inflammation.
VI. Treatments
B. In herbal medicine perspective
1. Artichoke
In the study to investigate the efficacy of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaveshistorically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout, showed that ALE inhibited XO with only minimal inhibitory action (< 5 %) at 100 microg/mL. However, when selected compounds were tested, the caffeic acid derivatives revealed a weak XO inhibitory effect with IC (50) > 100 microM. From the tested flavones the aglycone luteolin potently inhibited XO with an IC (50) value of 1.49 microM. Luteolin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide showed lower XO inhibition activities with IC (50) values of 19.90 microM and 20.24 microM, respectively. However, oral administration of an aqueous ALE, luteolin, and luteolin 7-O-glucoside did not produce any observable hypouricemic effects after acute oral treatment in potassium oxonate-treated rats. After intraperitoneal injection of luteolin a decrease in uric acid levels was detected suggesting that the hypouricemic effects of luteolin are due to its original form rather than its metabolites produced by the gut flora. In conclusion, an aqueous ALE, caffeic acid derivatives and flavones exerted XO inhibitory effects in vitro but a hypouricemic activity could not be confirmed after oral administration(22).
2. Green teas
Researchers suggested that although no direct molecular target has been so far elucidated for Epigallo catechin-O-gallate (EGCG), the multi-potentialities of this molecule, along with its broad bioavailability, render it very attractive as a putative curative drug for various diseases such as dermatosis, gout, atherosclerosis and cancer, as Green tea anti-oxidant properties could explain its antagonistic action in some inflammatory processes(23).
3. Alfalfa
In the article by By jeffwend, the author wrote that Alfalfa can help to increase uric acid levels in the urine which can help reduce the amount of uric acid available to crystallize…. And the spice turmeric and the enzyme bromelain work well together to reduce inflammation(24).
4. Devil’s claw 
Harpagoside, a Glycoside, the chemical, principle extracted from the Devil’s Claw root, contributes the natural anti-inflammatory properties and used as a Gout remedy and other painful disorders of the Musculoskeletal system(25).
5. Purple Sweet Potato
In the study to investigate  the hypouricemic effects of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato (APSP), and allopurinol, on serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic mice, was found that administration of a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg APSP to such animals reduced the serum uric acid concentration to 4.10 ± 0.04 mg/dL, compared with a concentration of 10.25 ± 0.63 mg/dL in the hyperuricemic control group(26).

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