Thursday, 28 November 2013

Glaucoma – Diseases associated to Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a medical condition of an eye disease as result of the damage of the nerve of eye’s optic over time. If left untreated, it can lead to permanently vision impair and blindness.
B. Diseases associated to Glaucoma
1. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy
There are cases of angle-closure glaucoma in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy have been reported secondary to neovascularization of the anterior segment. According to the Thomas Jefferson University, there may be an association between familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and angle-closure glaucoma as a direct result of a retrolental process or more likely a relative lens-iris pupillary block with a large lens(28).
2. Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus contributes to an earlier and a quicker development of opacities of the lens and worsening of the vision in affected people. According to the study by Z Kliniki Okulistyki Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Białymstoku, the main source of energy in the human lens is glucose, which is metabolised through the glycolytic process. When the level of glucose increases in blood, its content also increases in aqueous humour and in the lens. It causes a saturation of the glycolytic process and the activation of the sorbitol pathway with participation of aldose reductase. The accumulation of sorbits responsible for the growth of osmotic pressure inside the lens, inflow of water and gradual swelling of its fibres. In extreme cases a swelling of the lens can even lead to occurrence of cataracta intumescens and secondary glaucoma(29).
3. Headache
Acute headache is a common presenting symptom in the acute medical unit. There is a case of Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma (AACG) presenting with acute severe headache(30).
4. Retinal Detachment
In the study of a 63-year-old Caucasian man with a 55-year history of long-standing retinal detachment after trauma presented to our facility with pain and redness, a total hyphema, no light perception vision and an intraocular pressure of 60 mmHg (right eye and had a history of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, found that following anterior chamber washout, he was found to have neovascular glaucoma, for which intravitreal bevacizumab was administered(31).
5. Marfan Syndrome
There is a report of a case of a 41-year-old woman with bilateral lens subluxation and medically uncontrolled glaucoma in whom Marfan syndrome (MFS) was diagnosed(32).
6. Uveitis
There is a reprot of a 43-year-old Cuban pseudophakic male was seen multiple times over a 3-year period complaining of floaters and blurry vision in his left eye. He was noted to have an inferotemporally displaced posterior chamber intraocular lens and recurrent microhyphemas with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) readings between 29 and 46 mm Hg with each episode. He was diagnosed with UGH syndrome(33).
7. Cataract
There is a report of a case of lens particle glaucoma in a child with an untreated unilateral congenital cataract and persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) and to discuss the implications for the management of unilateral congenital cataract.
8. Scleritis
There is a report of a 14-year-old boy with unilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma secondary to posterior scleritis associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome, according to the Hirosaki University School of Medicine(35).
9. Etc.
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