Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Fibromyalgia – The Causes and Risk factors

Fibromyalgia, according to the American College of Rheumatology 1990 Criteria for the Classification of Fibromyalgia in the newly proposed criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia are 1) widespread pain in combination with 2) tenderness at 11 or more of the 18 specific tender point sites(a) as a result in responding to pressure.
II. Causes and Risk factors
A. Causes
1. Oxidative stress
There are some evidences demonstrating that oxidative stress is associated to clinical symptoms in FM of fibromyalgia(5).
2. Chronic stress
The relationship between stress, depression and functionality seems to be part of a complex mechanism, which might affect the quality of life of patients with FM(6).
3. Alpha1-Antitrypsin (AAT) 
There is a a possible relationship between AAT deficiency (AAT-D) and fibromyalgia (FM)(7).
4. Inflammatory rheumatic disorders
There is evidence to suggest that fibromyalgia occurs much more frequently than expected in individuals with inflammatory rheumatic disorders(8).
5. Sleep disturbance
There is a reciprocal relationship exists between pain and sleep, and that intervention targeted primarily at insomnia may improve pain(9).
6. Etc.
B. Risk factors
1. Gender 
If you are women, you are at higher risk than men to develop Fibromyalgia(10)
2. Family history
In the study to investigate  whether Fibromyalgia (FM) patients differ from their first-degree relatives with and without FM regarding the four personality traits, based on Cloninger’s TPQ questionnaire, found that
relatives with FM display personality resemblance to FM patients especially in the personality trait harm avoidance. It appears that there are factors in this personality trait that are hereditary and that may contribute to the development of FM(11).
3. Environmental susceptibility may be the possible causes of Fibromyalgia(12).
4. Other illness
There is a believe that certain illness are associated to the increased risk of Fibromyalgia, such as diseases of infection.
5. Etc.
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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2306288
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22532869
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22641587
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15694694 
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19078011
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20047347
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15074033
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21122266
(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21594765

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