Thursday, 28 November 2013

Diabetes – The Causes

Diabetes is defined as a condition caused by insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol. In some cases, diabetes is also caused by allergic reactions of cells in the immune system.
A. The Causes
1. Head trauma
Head trauma may be associated to the causes of Head trauma as a possible cause of central diabetes insipidus  of central diabetes insipidus. There ia a report of a13-month-old female domestic shorthair cat presented with a 10-month history of polyuria and polydipsia that began after having been hit by a car. Neurological examination revealed visual deficits and an absent bilateral menace response. Hematological and serum biochemical analysis were within reference values, but hyposthenuria was identified. Failure to concentrate urine during the water deprivation test followed by an increase in urine specific gravity after administration of synthetic antidiuretic hormone (ADH) suggested central diabetes insipidus diagnosis(12).
2. Metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome are associated with the increased risk of diabetes. Ghrelin is one of the circulating peptides, which stimulates appetite and regulates energy balance, and thus is one of the candidate genes for obesity and T2DM. During the last years both basic research and genetic association studies have revealed association between the ghrelin gene and obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes(13).
3. Gestational diabetes
Gestational Diabetes is defined as a condition of high blood glucose of a pregnant women who is experience such diseases or symptoms only during pregnancy as a result of hormonal change, but return to normal blood sugar after giving birth. Gestation diabetes is considered as an indication of type II diabetes. It affects approximately 3% of pregnant women.
4. Prediabetes
In prediabetics, either the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin on demand or the cells do not actively respond to the insulin in the bloodstream.Prediabetes is caused by unhealthy diets with high in saturated fat, smoking and excessive alcohol drinking. Prediabetes is a high-risk state for diabetes, especially in patients who remain with prediabetes despite intensive lifestyle intervention. Reversion to normal glucose regulation, even if transient, is associated with a significantly reduced risk of future diabetes independent of previous treatment group(14).
5. Damage to the Pancreas
Dr, Guimarães ET and the research tean in the study of “Transplantation of Stem Cells Obtained from Murine Dental Pulp Improves Pancreatic Damage, Renal Function and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy in Diabetic Type 1 Mouse Model” indicated that mouse dental pulp stem cells (mDPSC)  therapy may contribute to pancreatic β-cell renewal, prevents renal damage in diabetic animals, and produces a powerful and long-lasting antinociceptive effect on behavioral neuropathic pain. Our results suggest stem cell therapy as an option for the control of diabetes complications such as intractable diabetic neuropathic pain(15).
6. Influenza a viruses
Influenza A viruses commonly cause pancreatitis in naturally and experimentally infected animals. In the study to investigate whether influenza virus infection could cause metabolic disorders linked to pancreatic infection, found that  that influenza virus infection may play a role as a causative agent of pancreatitis and diabetes in humans and other mammals(16).
7. Etc.
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