Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)– The Risk factors

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseasesRestrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and  muscles breathing , etc,.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD))is the third leading cause of death in the United State.
 1. Emphysema, a type of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is defined as a long term and progressive condition cause of shortness of breath but depending to the stage of lung function as a result of damage to tissues of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. In the study of 63 patients with stable COPD (spirometric GOLD stages 2–4) and 17 age- and comorbidity-matched controls, researchers found that in contrast to asthma, COPD is characterised by elevated concentrations of both BDNF and TGF-beta1 in serum. The stage-dependent association with lung function supports the hypothesis that these platelet mediators may play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD(1). In some cases, but rarely, Emphysema is caused by Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema.
2. Chronic bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the lung’s bronchi cause of the increased production of mucus in the lung of that leading to difficult breathing.
B.2. Risk factors
1. Occupation
In a longitudinal cohort study of 8,967 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, showed that employment in mechanic and repair jobs and cleaning and building service occupations are associated with increased incidence of respiratory symptoms. Specific occupations affect the respiratory health of adults without pre-existing respiratory health symptoms and conditions, though long-term health consequences of inhalation exposures in these jobs remain largely unexplored(14).
2. Aging 
Since COPD is a long term and progressive diseases over ages, if you are over 40 years of age, you are at increased risk to develop COPD.
3. Genetic
The marked variability in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in response to cigarette smoking has been known for decades, but severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PI Z) remains the only proven genetic risk factor for COPD, according to the study by Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Brigham and Women’s Hospital(15).  Others suggested that the SERPINE2 gene also is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(16).
4. Etc.
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(1) http://respiratory-research.com/content/13/1/116/abstract  

(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22433119
(15) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11199103
(16) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16358219

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